Information for record number MWA1922:
Warwick Castle, Phase I

Summary Phase I of Warwick Castle which was built from 1068 as a motte and bailey Castle. It was first constructed in wood, but was rebuilt in stone possibly during the 12th century. It was at least partially enclosed by a moat.
What Is It?  
Type: Motte And Bailey, Castle
Period: Medieval (1066 AD - 1539 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Warwick
District: Warwick, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 28 64
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Conservation Area (Grade: )
Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Scheduled Monument (Grade: )
Listed Building (Grade: I)
Sites & Monuments Record
Picture(s) attached

 
Description

 
Source Number  

1 A castle at Warwick was begun by William I in 1068 as part of a plan to safeguard the Midlands. This castle was of the motte and bailey type and stands on a sandstone bluff overlooking a bend in the Avon where the river has cut away the rock to form a cliff. Except on this side the walls which surround the bailey are protected by a moat. The area enclosed by the walls is about 128m from NE to SW and about 82m wide. The motte, on which a part of the keep stands, forms the SW end of the enclosure, but the most formidable defences, built in the 14th century, are at the NE end. Here a central gatehouse tower with a barbican outside is connected by high curtain walls to two great angle towers. To the N are remains of 15th century fortifications. The SE side of the former bailey is occupied by the domestic buildings, which are 14th century and later in date. The castle would originally have had a wooden palisade on the bailey and motte. Timber was replaced by stone, presumably from the 12th century onwards. The modern walls on the motte incorporate probable 13th century masonry. The domestic buildings were placed on the securest side of the bailey and included a church (PRN 1951). Various alterations and additions were carried out from the 14th century until modern times.
2 Plan.
3 Information in Pevsner.
4 bailey obliterated by later remodelling, but present courtyard presumed to correspond to original shape.
7 Two reconstructions of the area around Caesar's tower c.1700 and c.1550.
8 Four small trenches were excavated on the north-east side of the mound to assess the archaeological impact of proposals to remodel and extend the existing pathway. A small quantity of 13th century material was found but the excavator decided that the proposed work would not damage archaeology.
11 An evaluation on top of the mound identified features contemporary with the earliest phase of the castle. features included part of the plinth of the keep west wall. The construction trench for this wall contained 13th century pottery. Possible floor surfaces were identified. During the Civil War the an earth gun battery was constructed on the mound. A slot cut into the back of the exposed keep footing may have been associated with this construction and a copper alloy Civil War period farthing was recovered.
12,
13 Documentary and Pictoral Evidence of Warwick castle mound.
14 Documentary and Pictorial Survey of Watergate tower.
15 Plans of Watergate tower.
16 Photos of Watergate tower.
17 Small scale excavation and recording were carried out on behalf of Warwick castle Ltd in advance of building work for a new exhibition in the undercroft of the domestic range.
18 A series of trenches for floodlighting, computer cabling and replacement water mains were observed on behalf of Warwick castle Ltd.
19 'Fulke Greville and Warwick castle' - report including plans and photos.
20 In 1995 an evaluation took place in advance of path construction immediately below and north of Caesar's tower. Four trenches were excavated. These revealed mostly 18th and 19th century features associated with the landscaping of the area, but also uncovered a foundation of Caesar's tower itself and provided evidence to suggest that the Medieval ditch was considerably wider and deeper than the existing one.
21 Site of Civil War siege, as discussed in 'Edgehill and Beyond: The People's War in the South Midlands 1642-45' by Philip Tennant (1992). Approximately 2 weeks long, musket ball holes in face of Guy's tower (B. Gethin pers. Comm.)
22 Visitor's booklet on the grounds and garden.
23 Ground plan.
24 Correspondence from 1997.
25VCH reference
 
Sources

Source No: 10
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Archaeological Journal 1986
Author/originator: Thompson M W
Date: 1986
Page Number: 306 & 316
Volume/Sheet: 143
   
Source No: 1
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Victoria County History, vol 8, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Pugh R B (ed)
Date: 1969
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 8
   
Source No: 2
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Victoria County History, vol 8, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Pugh R B (ed)
Date: 1969
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 8
   
Source No: 3
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: The Buildings of England: Warwickshire
Author/originator: Pevsner N and Wedgwood A
Date: 1966
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Warwicks
   
Source No: 4
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: TBAS vol 67
Author/originator: PBC
Date: 1947
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 67
   
Source No: 25
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Victoria County History, vol 2, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Page W (ed)
Date: 1908
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 2
   
Source No: 24
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Warwick Castle
Author/originator: EH
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 12
Source Type: Desk Top Study
Title: Warwick Castle Mound. The Documentary and Pictorial Evidence
Author/originator: Booth G M D and Palmer N J
Date: 1995
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 19
Source Type: Desk Top Study
Title: Fulke Greville and Warwick Castle
Author/originator: Booth G M D and Palmer N J
Date: 1996
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 14
Source Type: Desk Top Study
Title: Warwick Castle: Watergate Tower
Author/originator: Booth G M D and Palmer N J
Date: 1996
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: A Documentary and Pi
   
Source No: 13
Source Type: Drawing
Title: Warwick Castle Mound
Author/originator: Booth G M D and Palmer N J
Date: 1995
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 7
Source Type: Drawing
Title: Brewhouse adjacent to Caesar's Tower, Warwick
Author/originator: Palmer N
Date: 1993
Page Number: 6-11
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 22
Source Type: Descriptive Text
Title: Warwick Castle: grounds and gardens
Author/originator: Edwards Paul
Date: 1991
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 20
Source Type: Evaluation Report
Title: Archaeological Evaluation of proposed paths below Caesar's Tower
Author/originator: N Palmer
Date: 1995
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 8
Source Type: Evaluation Report
Title: Warwick Castle Mound Archaeological Evaluation of Path on northeast side
Author/originator: Palmer Nicholas
Date: 1993
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 11
Source Type: Evaluation Report
Title: Warwick Castle Archaeological Evaluation of the Top of the Mound
Author/originator: Palmer N J
Date: 1995
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 16
Source Type: Photograph
Title: Warwick Castle: Watergate Tower
Author/originator: Booth G M D and Palmer N J
Date: 1996
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 15
Source Type: Plan
Title: Warwick Castle: Watergate Tower
Author/originator: Booth G M D and Palmer N J
Date: 1996
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: A Documentary and Pi
   
Source No: 23
Source Type: Plan
Title: Warwick Castle
Author/originator:
Date:
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 18
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 37 (1994)
Author/originator: White, R (ed)
Date: 1995
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 37
   
Source No: 17
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 36 (1993)
Author/originator: White, R (ed)
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 36
   
Source No: 9
Source Type: Serial
Title: Archaeological Journal 1985
Author/originator: Emery A
Date: 1985
Page Number: 325
Volume/Sheet: 142
   
Source No: 6
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: SAM list
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1985
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 5
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Warwick Castle
Author/originator: DoE
Date:
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 21
Source Type: Verbal communication
Title: Pers. Comm.
Author/originator: B Gethin
Date: 2013 onwards
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Images:  
Warwick Castle from the air
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Click here for larger image  
 
Warwick Castle
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 2000
Click here for larger image  
 
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Glossary

 
Word or Phrase
Description  
none Scheduled Monument Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAMs) are those archaeological sites which are legally recognised as being of national importance. They can range in date from prehistoric times to the Cold War period. They can take many different forms, including disused buildings or sites surviving as earthworks or cropmarks.

SAMs are protected by law from unlicensed disturbance and metal detecting. Written consent from the Secretary of State must be obtained before any sort of work can begin, including archaeological work such as geophysical survey or archaeological excavation. There are nearly 200 SAMs in Warwickshire.
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designation Listed Building Buildings and structures, such as bridges, that are of architectural or historical importance are placed on a statutory list. These buildings are protected by planning and conservation acts that ensure that their special features of interest are considered before any alterations are made to them.

Depending on how important the buildings are they are classed as Grade I, Grade II* or Grade II. Grade I buildings are those of exceptional interest. Grade II* are particularly important buildings of more than special interest. Those listed as Grade II are those buildings that are regarded of special interest.
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designation Conservation Area The character of a town or village is often enhanced by its streets and buildings. Where these places are of special architectural or historic interest, they are protected by being designated as a Conservation Area. Conservation Areas vary greatly and can range from historic town centres to country houses set in parkland. Their special characteristics come from a combination of factors including the quality of buildings, the historic layout of roads and boundaries, use of characteristic building materials, the presence of trees and street furniture. All features within the area are recognised as part of its special character. Within Conservation Areas there are greater controls over demolition, minor developments and protection of trees. back
source SAM List Scheduled Ancient Monument List. A list or schedule of archaelogical and historic monuments that are considered to be of national importance. The list contains a detailed description of each Scheduled Ancient Monument (SAM) and a map showing their location and extent. By being placed on the schedule, SAMs are protected by law from any unauthorised distrubance. The list has been compiled and is maintained by English Heritage. It is updated periodically. back
source TBAS Transactions of the Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeological Society is a journal produced by the society annually. It contains articles about archaeological field work that has taken place in Birmingham and Warwickshire in previous years. Copies of the journal are kept by the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
source VCH The Victoria County History of the Counties of England. This publication covers the history of each county in England. For Warwickshire, seven volumes were published between 1904 and 1964. They comprise a comprehensive account of the history of each town and village in the county, and important families connected to local history. Each volume is organised by 'hundred', an Anglo-Saxon unit of land division. The Victoria County History also contains general chapters about Warwickshire's prehistory, ecclesiastical and economic history. A copy of each volume is held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
source WMA West Midlands Archaeology. This publication contains a short description for each of the sites where archaeological work has taken place in the previous year. It covers Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. Some of these descriptions include photographs, plans and drawings of the sites and/or the finds that have been discovered. The publication is produced by the Council For British Archaeology (CBA) West Midlands and is published annually. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique excavation Archaeologists excavate sites so that they can find information and recover archaeological materials before they are destroyed by erosion, construction or changes in land-use.

Depending on how complicated and widespread the archaeological deposits are, excavation can be done by hand or with heavy machinery. Archaeologists may excavate a site in a number of ways; either by open area excavation, by digging a test pit or a trial trench.
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period Modern The Modern Period, about 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 – 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 – 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIII’s (1509 – 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
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period modern About 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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monument CIVIL * This is the top term for the class. See CIVIL Class List for narrow terms. back
monument PALISADE * An enclosure of stakes driven into the ground, sometimes for defensive purposes. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument ANGLE TOWER * A fortified tower found at the angle of a castle wall. back
monument BARBICAN * Any earthworks, walling, bastion or fortified outwork, or combination of these, generally with ditch or moat. back
monument BREWHOUSE * An outbuilding containing brewing equipment, as opposed to a large commercial BREWERY. Often found in conjunction with public houses, country houses etc. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument STONE * Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function. back
monument KEEP * The major tower of a fortification, often acting as its last defence. back
monument FLOOR * A layer of stone, brick or boards, etc, on which people tread. Use broader site type where known. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument TOWER * A tall building, either round, square or polygonal in plan, used for a variety of purposes, including defence, as a landmark, for the hanging of bells, industrial functions, etc. Use more specific type where known. back
monument CHURCH * A building used for public Christian worship. Use more specific type where known. back
monument MOAT * A wide ditch surrounding a building, usually filled with water. Use for moated sites, not defensive moats. Use with relevant site type where known, eg. MANOR HOUSE, GARDEN, etc. back
monument PATH * A way made for pedestrians, especially one merely made by walking (often not specially constructed). back
monument FORTIFICATION * A usually permanent defensive work. Use specific type where known. back
monument CASTLE * A fortress and dwelling, usually medieval in origin, and often consisting of a keep, curtain wall and towers etc. back
monument COURTYARD * An uncovered area, surrounded or partially surrounded by buildings. back
monument GATEHOUSE * A gateway with one or more chambers over the entrance arch; the flanking towers housing stairs and additional rooms. Use with wider site type where known. back
monument DEFENCE * This is the top term for the class. See DEFENCE Class List for narrow terms. back
monument MOTTE AND BAILEY * An early form of castle consisting of a flat-top steep-sided earthen mound, supporting a wooden tower, and a bailey. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument WOOD * A tract of land with trees, sometimes acting as a boundary or barrier, usually smaller and less wild than a forest. back
monument TRENCH * An excavation used as a means of concealment, protection or both. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument GARDEN * An enclosed piece of ground devoted to the cultivation of flowers, fruit or vegetables and/or recreational purposes. Use more specific type where known. back
monument UNDERCROFT * A vault or crypt under a church or chapel. Use wider site type where known. back
monument BAILEY * The courtyard of a castle, ie. the area enclosed by the rampart or curtain. Use with wider site type where known. back
monument SIEGE * In the glass industry this is bench-like structure within the melting-furnace on which crucibles are placed. back
monument MOUND * A natural or artificial elevation of earth or stones, such as the earth heaped upon a grave. Use more specific type where known. back
monument CURTAIN WALL * A wall between two towers or pavilions, usually surrounding a building, and often forming a major part of the defences. back
monument WALL * An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known. back
monument CONSTRUCTION TRENCH * A trench dug in order to receive the foundations of a structure such as a stone wall etc. back
monument DOMESTIC * This is the top term for the class. See DOMESTIC Class List for narrow terms. back
monument BATTERY * A site where guns, mortars or searchlights are mounted. Use specific type where known. back
monument MOTTE * An artificial steep-sided earthen mound on, or in, which is set the principal tower of a castle. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record