Information for record number MWA1694:
Harborough Banks

Summary Harborough Banks, the site of a hillfort dating to the Iron Age. Some areas of the hillfort are still visible as earthworks. It is located 300m north of Broom Hall Bridge.
What Is It?  
Type: Hillfort, Earthwork
Period: Iron Age (800 BC - 42 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Lapworth
District: Warwick, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 18 70
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record
Picture(s) attached


Source Number  

1 Traces of ramparts surround an area of about 10.8 ha, the E part sloping down to the brook while the W part is elevated. The spout of an ewer was found here during gravel digging.
2 Scant remains of a once important camp. The camp was situated upon the slope of a slight hollow, with higher ground on three of its sides. Very badly damaged. 1730: A record of banks being dug for gravel. Much more destruction after 1862. Remains consist of a rampart and ditch running in a NW direction for about 300m. In plan of 1860 the rampart is shown running 200m further N. In addition a S rampart 300m long is shown, along with E and N alignments forming an irregular oval.
4 The construction of the Stratford on Avon canal did a good deal to obliterate the camp, one of the locks being constructed across its NE corner and a small reservoir being built partly within and outside its lines.
5 1968: Similar to Wappenbury. It is at its strongest on the SW, on the N its course passes through gardens and is barely traceable, while on the E its remains are visible as a slight ridge passing through a plantation and across a field. 1976: A scarp slope with a maximum height of 0.9m in the plantation on the E may represent the remains of the defences.
6 Probably univallate, 26 acres enclosed.
7 Correspondence from 1958.
8 Correspondence from 1997 about various sites in the parish.
9 Precis about the site.
10 Evaluative fieldwork undertaken within the earthworks of Harborough Banks, at Mill Lane/Old Warwick Road, Lapworth failed to record any securely dated features associated with the hillfort. A series of possible pits and postholes, as well as gullies were recorded, of unknown date, with the latter suggested as possible wheel ruts associated with Old Warwick Road.

Source No: 4
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Memorials of a Warwickshire Parish
Author/originator: Hudson R
Date: 1904
Page Number: 167
Source No: 1
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: The Forest of Arden
Author/originator: Hannett J
Date: 1894
Page Number: 8, p108
Source No: 2
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Victoria County History, vol 1, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Doubleday H A & Page W (eds)
Date: 1904
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 1
Source No: 3
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Victoria County History, vol 1, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Doubleday H A & Page W (eds)
Date: 1904
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 1
Source No: 7
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Harborough Banks
Author/originator: Dickson, G.T.
Date: 1958
Page Number:
Source No: 8
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: SMR archives
Author/originator: Baddeley C
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 10
Source Type: Evaluation Report
Title: An Archaeological Evaluation At Mill Lane/Old Warwick Road, Lapworth, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Kipling, R
Date: 2012
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 2012-146
Source No: 8
Source Type: Photograph
Title: Harborough Banks
Page Number:
Source No: 9
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: Harborough Banks
Page Number:
Source No: 5
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: OS Card 29NW3
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1976
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 29NW3
Source No: 6
Source Type: Serial
Title: TBAS vol 86
Author/originator: Thomas N
Date: 1974
Page Number: 32
Volume/Sheet: 86
Iron Age hillfort, Lapworth
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 1996
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Word or Phrase
source OS Card Ordnance Survey Record Card. Before the 1970s the Ordnance Survey (OS) were responsible for recording archaeological monuments during mapping exercises. This helped the Ordnance Survey to decide which monuments to publish on maps. During these exercises the details of the monuments were written down on record cards. Copies of some of the cards are kept at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. The responsibility for recording archaeological monuments later passed to the Royal Commission on Ancient and Historic Monuments. back
source TBAS Transactions of the Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeological Society is a journal produced by the society annually. It contains articles about archaeological field work that has taken place in Birmingham and Warwickshire in previous years. Copies of the journal are kept by the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique Earthwork Earthworks can take the form of banks, ditches and mounds. They are usually created for a specific purpose. A bank, for example, might be the remains of a boundary between two or more fields. Some earthworks may be all that remains of a collapsed building, for example, the grassed-over remains of building foundations.

In the winter, when the sun is lower in the sky than during the other seasons, earthworks have larger shadows. From the air, archaeologists are able to see the patterns of the earthworks more easily. Earthworks can sometimes be confusing when viewed at ground level, but from above, the general plan is much clearer.

Archaeologists often carry out an aerial survey or an earthwork survey to help them understand the lumps and bumps they can see on the ground.
period Iron Age About 800 BC to 43 AD

The Iron Age comes after the Bronze Age and before the Roman period. It is a time when people developed the skills and knowledge to work and use iron, hence the name ‘Iron Age’ which is given to this period. Iron is a much tougher and more durable metal than bronze but it also requires more skill to make objects from it. People continued to use bronze during this period.
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monument FIELDWORK * A usually temporary earthwork or fortification, the latter constructed by military forces operating in the field. Use more specific type where known. back
monument HOLLOW * A hollow, concave formation or place, which has sometimes been dug out. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument WHEEL RUT * A linear groove worn into the surface of a road or thoroughfare by the continuous passage of wheeled vehicles. Usually expected to occur in pairs. back
monument LOCK * A section of the water channel on a canal or river shut off above and below by lock gates provided with sluices to let the water out and in, and thus raise or lower boats from one level to another. Use more specific type where known. back
monument CANAL * An artificial navigable waterway used for the transportation of goods. Nowadays also used for recreational purposes. back
monument MILL * A factory used for processing raw materials. Use more specific mill type where known. See also TEXTILE MILL, for more narrow terms. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument RAMPART * A protective earthen mound, often the main defence of a fortification. back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
monument PIT * A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known. back
monument WELL * A shaft or pit dug in the ground over a supply of spring-water. back
monument FIELD * An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock. back
monument DEFENCE * This is the top term for the class. See DEFENCE Class List for narrow terms. back
monument BRIDGE * A structure of wood, stone, iron, brick or concrete, etc, with one or more intervals under it to span a river or other space. Use specific type where known. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument GARDEN * An enclosed piece of ground devoted to the cultivation of flowers, fruit or vegetables and/or recreational purposes. Use more specific type where known. back
monument PLANTATION * A group of planted trees or shrubs, generally of uniform age and of a single species. back
monument HILLFORT * A hilltop enclosure bounded by one or more substantial banks, ramparts and ditches. Use more specific type where known. back
monument FOREST * A large tract of land covered with trees and interspersed with open areas of land. Traditionally forests were owned by the monarchy and had their own laws. back
monument EARTHWORK * A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification. back
monument SCARP * A steep bank or slope. In fortifications, the bank or wall immediately in front of and below the rampart. back
monument RESERVOIR * A large natural or artificial body of water, sometimes covered, used to collect and store water for a particular function, eg. industrial or public use. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record