Information for record number MWA2191:
Possible location of Saxon Defences for Warwick

Summary Documentary and place name evidence suggests that the line of the Early Medieval defences of the Saxon burgh follow the line of the later Medieval walls in Warwick.
What Is It?  
Type: Defence, Town Defences
Period: Early medieval (801 AD - 1065 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Warwick
District: Warwick, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 46 64
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record

Source Number  

1 The Saxon burgh at Warwick was established by Ethelfleda in 914 to defend Mercia against the Danes. The site commanded the river valley and a natural crossing of the Avon, and was strategically well-placed to control the Fosse Way.
2 It has previously been assumed that the Medieval line followed the Saxon ramparts. However this has not been confirmed by archaeological investigation. At Barrack Street (WA 2188) the earliest evidence is late 11th - 12th century, and the evidence from Market Street is unconvincing for Saxon material (WA 1988). The defences must have enclosed the area of the Castle to the south, since the Norman work involved demolishing 4 existing houses, and included the Saxon minster in its precincts. E.Klingelhofer suggests that a line, based on street patterns, might have run along Brook Street, The Butts, and the now buried Back Hills.
3 Observations during the laying of a new water main in Market Place, Market Street and Bowling Green Street (WA 8216) failed to locate any evidence of the suggested Saxon defences at the corner of Brook Street and Market Place, though this was not regarded by the observers as conclusive.
4 Undated slide and photograph.
5 Possible extent of the Saxon town.
6 Letter from 1975.

Source No: 2
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Midland History
Date: 1975
Page Number: 1-4
Volume/Sheet: Vol III
Source No: 1
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Victoria County History, vol 8, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Pugh R B (ed)
Date: 1969
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 8
Source No: 6
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: The Holloway, Warwick
Author/originator: Edgerton, Mrs Irene
Date: 1975
Page Number:
Source No: 3
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Archaeological Observation of Warwick Town Water Main Renewal
Author/originator: Palmer, S
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 4
Source Type: Photograph
Title: Saxon Defences, Warwick
Page Number:
Source No: 5
Source Type: Plan
Title: Saxon Warwick
Author/originator: Klingelhofer, Eric C.
Date: 1973
Page Number:
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Word or Phrase
period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 – 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 – 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIII’s (1509 – 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
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monument HOUSE * A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known. back
monument PRECINCT * The ground immediately surrounding a place, particularly a religious building. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument TOWN DEFENCES * Defensive fortifications such as ramparts, ditches and stone walls, built to defend a town or city. back
monument MINSTER * A complex of buildings, often within an enclosure, housing a pre-Benedictine Reform secular religious community. Now commonly used to describe the main church within such a complex, which over time attained higher status. back
monument BURGH * A civil and administrative area incorporating a town of medieval origin. back
monument MARKET * An open space or covered building in which cattle, goods, etc, are displayed for sale. back
monument BOWLING GREEN * A closely mown piece of ground used for the game of lawn bowling. back
monument RAMPART * A protective earthen mound, often the main defence of a fortification. back
monument CASTLE * A fortress and dwelling, usually medieval in origin, and often consisting of a keep, curtain wall and towers etc. back
monument WELL * A shaft or pit dug in the ground over a supply of spring-water. back
monument DEFENCE * This is the top term for the class. See DEFENCE Class List for narrow terms. back
monument BUTTS * A mound or structure on which an archery, musketry or artillery target is erected. Use specific type where known. back
monument MARKET PLACE * An area, often consisting of widened streets or a town square, where booths and stalls may be erected for public sales. back
monument WALL * An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known. back
monument TOWN * An assemblage of public and private buildings, larger than a village and having more complete and independent local government. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record