Information for record number MWA2927:
Stoneleigh Abbey Park

Summary Stoneleigh Abbey Park is an early 19th century gardens and Park for which Humphry Repton produced a Red Book in 1809, together with a 17th century detached deer park which was also landscaped in the early 19th century.
What Is It?  
Type: Formal Garden, Landscape Park, Glasshouse, Kitchen Garden, Drive, Stable, Lodge, Garden Terrace, Balustrade, Rose Garden, Fountain, Walk, Lake, Animal Cemetery, Cascade, Icehouse
Period: Modern - Modern (1801 AD - 2050 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Ashow
District: Warwick, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 31 71
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Registered Park or Garden (Grade: II*)
Sites & Monuments Record

Source Number  

13 Stoneleigh Abbey is situated circa 5.5km north of Royal Leamington Spa and circa 2.5km east of Kenilworth. The A444 road passes from south to north through the site separating the Deer Park from the Abbey and New Park to the west. The circa 365heactre site comprises 7 hectares of gardens and pleasure grounds adjacent to the Abbey, around 213 hectares of Parkland and ornamental plantations, and 145 hectares in the Deer Park to the north-east of the A444 road. The River Avon flows in an S-shaped course from east to south through the New Park, while the River Sowe enters the site from the north, joining the River Avon circa 1.3km north-east of the Abbey. ENTRANCES AND APPROACHES Stoneleigh Abbey is approached from the B4115 road to the west. The entrance is marked by a pair of single-storey, Stone, neo-classical lodges, known as the Grecian lodges. The entrance leads to an avenue of limes which lines a tarmac drive extending 320m south-east across the Park to cross the River Avon on a bridge. Beyond the bridge, the drive continues south-east through an avenue of limes for 350m to approach the Abbey from the north-west. A late 20th century drive leads north parallel to the north range, giving access to Parking areas and garages 50m north of the house. East of the Gatehouse, the drive gives access to the Tudor-gothic stables and riding school 100m north-east of the Abbey. The west approach was developed in the early 19th century, following Repton's advice in 1809. As implemented, the west drive follows a more direct route to the north of the serpentine course advocated by Repton. The drive assumed its final form in 1814 when a public road crossing the Park from north to south c 600m west of the Abbey was diverted to the line of the B4115 road. The east or London drive which formerly approached the Abbey through the Deer Park is now disused. The entrance to the Deer Park is marked by Tantara lodge, also known as Bubbenhall or London lodge. Two further early 19th century lodges mark points of access to the Deer Park. North lodge stands adjacent to an entrance from Coventry road to the north. To the south, Stareton lodge, also known as Park lodge and The Beehive, stands immediately to the west of a gate which today leads into the grounds of the late 20th century business centre, but which formerly led to a footpath. PRINCIPAL BUILDING Stoneleigh Abbey stands on a terrace to the north and east of the River Avon. The mansion incorporates remains of a Cistercian Abbey founded in 1154. gardenS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS The formal terraces and informal pleasure grounds lie principally to the north, west and south of the Abbey. The central court of the Abbey is laid out with a late 20th century knot garden. The north garden was described by Repton as the Bowling Green garden (1809), and corresponds to a walled enclosure shown on plans of 1749 and 1766, the garden occupying the site of the monastic church. To the north-east of the Bowling Green garden a pair of elaborate early 18th century wrought-iron gates surmounted by an overthrow containing a coronet and monogram lead to the drive west of the stables. The gates are supported on rebuilt square brick piers surmounted by 18th century lead urns. A partly Stone-flagged and tarmac terrace and areas of lawn below the west facade extends 30m to the remains of a mid 19th century Stone balustrade which separates the terrace from an area of level mown grass used in the 20th century as a cricket ground. A mid 20th century timber pavilion stands to the south. Repton advised the construction of a terrace below the west front in 1809, but the terrace as constructed in 1814 does not correspond to his proposal. The terrace was developed as a formal garden with geometric parterre beds designed by W A Nesfield in the mid 19th century; these were simplified by Percy Cane in the 1930s and do not visibly survive. The terrace replaced an early 18th century walled Bowling Green which is shown in a view from the south-west (1749), and on surveys of 1749 and 1766. The slope descending from the south facade to the River Avon is terraced to provide a wide lawn and a riverside walk. Stone steps aligned on the axis of the west terrace descend to a gravelled upper walk. At the east and west ends of this walk further steps descend a grass slope to reach the wide central terrace. The riverside walk is retained by a Stone balustrade which breaks forward to east and west in square bastions. A central flight of Stone steps descends to the water. The south terraces were developed by W A Nesfield in the mid 19th century with a scheme comprising geometric beds for seasonal planting and Irish yews which does not survive. To the south-east, a mid 19th century conservatory overlooks a similar lawn. A gravel walk south of the conservatory sweeps south-east below a curved brick wall which screens the service yard, and continues east, parallel to the south wall of the kitchen garden for 80m, to reach the Rose Garden. 50m south-east of the orangery, a flight of Stone steps ascends from the walk to a pair of ornate 18th century wrought-iron gates with an armorial overthrow which are supported by a pair of square-section Stone piers set in the kitchen garden wall. A further pair of gates and piers is set in the garden wall 80m south-east of the orangery, at the north-west corner of the Rose Garden. The Rose Garden comprises a level rectangular terrace which is laid to lawn and planted with mid 20th century specimen conifers. At the centre of the lawn an elaborate, early 19th century, four-tier Coade Stone fountain is supported on a pedestal cast to resemble entwined branches. The fountain stands in a circular pool, the raised edge of which is also constructed in Coade Stone cast to resemble rocks with planting pockets and images of a variety of animals. The Rose Garden is enclosed to the north and east by brick kitchen garden walls, near the angle of which stands an early 19th century circular, thatched rustic summerhouse supported by tree trunks. From the Rose Garden a walk descends south-east through an area of informal shrubbery for 30m to reach a timber footbridge with lattice balustrades which crosses a Stone-lined water channel to reach an early 19th century timber summerhouse. The River Avon was widened in 1809 as part of Repton's improvements by laying together the river and an adjacent mill stream. Repton's lake was retained by a Stone weir 300m south-east of the house; this dam was raised during the 19th century to obscure silting and was breached by floods in the mid 20th century. The lake to the south of the Abbey was partially reinstated in 1999-2000. The early 19th century sunken garden and dogs' cemetery terminate the pleasure grounds to the south-east; a gate 30m east of the dogs' cemetery leads to the Park, while a walk returns north-west to the Rose Garden. The pleasure grounds are separated from the Cunnery to the north by a mixed hedge and timber fence. A walk leads south-west from the south terraces through an area of shrubbery and mature trees. 80m south-west of the house a 19th century water engine is housed in an early 19th century, single-storey, Tudor-gothic Stone pavilion attributed to C S Smith (Parklands 1997). The walk continues 50m south-west to a two-arched Stone bridge dated 1704 (datestone) which crosses a cascade. The cascade is associated with the site of a medieval mill which was demolished in 1812 as part of Repton's improvements. An early 19th century Stone weir in the Park allows water to flow into the lower river, while the former mill race is retained at a higher level by the mill island to the south. Repton used the mill cascade as a feature at the west end of the lake created to the south of the house in 1809. Park The Park comprises two distinct areas: the New Park to the west and south of the Abbey, and the Deer Park to the north-east of the A444 road. The New Park remains pasture with scattered mature trees and significant areas of woodland on the north-facing slope to the south of the River Avon. The river and the watercourses associated with the medieval mill and the early 19th century lake to the south of the Abbey flow in an S-shaped course from north-west to south-east through the New Park. In 1809 Repton proposed a bridge on a site to the east of the present footbridge, but the scheme was not implemented and the footbridge was built after 1813 to replace an earlier bridge serving a road to Ashow. Some 10m north-west of the bridge a culvert conveying water from the mill race discharges from a rusticated Stone arch in a small cascade; these features formed part of Repton's early 19th century alterations to the watercourses. An early 19th century icehouse of domed brick construction is built into the steep, north-facing hillside 20m south of the bridge. Some 80m north of the bridge, two pools and a water channel to the east separate a triangular area of meadow from the Park to the north. Known as Home Grange Green, this was the site of a medieval monastic Grange and a fulling mill which ceased to operate in the early 17thy century. A further area of the New Park lies to the north-east of the National Agricultural Centre 1km north-east of the Abbey. kitchen garden Three walled gardens and orchards are situated to the east of the Abbey beyond a service drive which leads south from the stables to the kitchens south-east of the Abbey. The gardens are enclosed by early 18th century brick walls c 3.5m high and surmounted by Stone copings. The west garden is entered from the west by a simple timber door, and is today laid to lawn separated from mixed perimeter borders by wide gravel walks. At the south-west corner tall Stone piers support a pair of ornamental early 18th century wrought-iron gates leading to the pleasure grounds. Some 15m east of the gates, an arched Stone structure incorporated into the south wall is of uncertain origin, but in the late 19th century was used as an aviary. At the north-west corner an 18th century single-storey brick gardener's cottage has been extended. A pair of tall rusticated Stone piers surmounted by ball finials is set in the east wall aligned with the west door. At the south-west corner of the east garden Stone piers support a further pair of early 18th century wrought-iron gates with an armorial overthrow which lead to the Rose Garden.
1 "Stoneleigh Park" first appears on a map from 1787, but is shown as the area of the Deer Park - (WA 2865) - not the area around the Abbey. On a map from 1822 the Deer Park is known as "Leigh Park", the Park around the Abbey is called "Stoneleigh Abbey Park". This Park was quite extensive and also included "the Grove" on the opposite side of the river from the Abbey as well as Glasshouse wood.
3 The 1886 O.S. map shows "Stoneleigh Park" reduced to the area which is now almost entirely covered by the National Agricultural Centre.
7 A watching brief was undertaken on test-pits dug to monitor contamination by a burst oil pipeline. Dumped deposits associated with the 19th century terracing of the gardens, presumably by Repton, were extensively recorded. A deposit of BUILDING material, probably associated with the 18th century house, was also recorded.
9 Lovie comments on extensive formal gardens around house and along river Avon with terraces. Parkland round house with woodland, drive, bridge. He comments that future of site uncertain but Parkland and gardens near house subject of a recent (at time of his report 1996/7) Heritage Lottery award; Deer Park a golf course.
10 Summary of results of watching briefs carried out at the Abbey during 2000. Inside the conservatory on the south side of the house, originally constructed in 1851 to the design of William Burns, the modern concrete floor was removed, exposing the original lines of the brick edging to two symmetrical planting areas. These both had circular brick-edged planters at their corners, c.0.60m across, which would originally have held large Stone urns; remnants of one such urn were found on one of the planters. At the centres of the northern edges of the two planting areas were semi-circular water features, still being fed with water from lead pipes from a source to the north. To the south-east of the house, in an area where new garages have been erected groundworks revealed a series of former yard surfaces and low-lying brick flooring with associated Stone walls. Brick walls were also noted. These features most likely relate to 18th/19th century lean-to sheds against the high garden wall.
11 Summary of results of watching briefs carried out at the Abbey during 2001. Reduction of the ground level to the south of the stables revealed the foundations of two substantial greenhouses with quarry tile and brick flooring and evidence for below-floor heating. The greenhouses are two of a group of four which are shown on the Ordnance Survey maps of 1887 and 1905. To the west of these, attached to the south-east of the stable clock complex, the floor and foundations of another structure with a quarry tile floor was uncovered. The bricks that made up the walls of the structure were stamped ‘LORD LEIGH’.
12 Summary of results of watching briefs carried out at the Abbey during 1998. Evidence was recorded of the 18th century gardens and landscaping shown on contemporary plans in the form of terracing, garden walls and gateposts to the north of the house and garden walls to the west.

Source No: 8
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Warwickshire Register Review Data Tables (Warwick)
Author/originator: Lovie, Jonathan
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 9
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Warwickshire Register Review Report & Recommendations
Author/originator: Lovie, Jonathan
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 5
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Register of Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England
Author/originator: English Heritage
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Source No: 13
Source Type: Statuatory List
Title: National Heritage List for England
Author/originator: Historic England
Page Number:
Source No: 6
Source Type: Map
Title: SMR Card
Author/originator: Pehrson B
Date: 1983
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: PRN 2927
Source No: 4
Source Type: Map
Title: 36NE 1973
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1973
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 36NE
Source No: 3
Source Type: Map
Title: 26SE 1:10560 1886
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1886
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 26SE
Source No: 1
Source Type: Map
Title: Map of Warwick
Author/originator: Yates
Date: 1878
Page Number:
Source No: 2
Source Type: Map
Title: Map of Warwick
Author/originator: Greenwood
Date: 1822
Page Number:
Source No: 7
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Archaeological Watching Brief of Test Trenches at Stoneleigh Abbey, Stoneleigh
Author/originator: P Cope-Faulkner and G Taylor
Date: 2007
Page Number:
Source No: 10
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA (West Midlands Archaeology) vol 43
Author/originator: CBA West Midlands
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Source No: 12
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 41 (1998)
Author/originator: Mould, C (ed)
Date: 1999
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 41
Source No: 11
Source Type: Unpublished document
Title: Warwickshire Archaeology in 2001 - Summary Reports
Author/originator: Warwickshire Museum Field Archaeology Projects Group
Date: 2002
Page Number:
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Word or Phrase
none Registered Park or Garden Parks and gardens that are considered to be of historic importance are placed on a register. The register comprises a variety of town gardens, public parks and country estates. The main purpose of the register is to help ensure that the features and qualities that make the parks and gardens special are safeguarded if changes are being considered which could affect them.

The gardens on the register are divided into three grades in order to give some guidance about their significance, in a similar way to Listed Buildings. The majority of parks and gardens on the Register are of sufficient interest as to be designated as grade II. Some, however, are recognised as being of exceptional historic interest and are awarded a star giving them grade II* status. A small number are of international importance, and are classified as grade I.
source SMR Card Sites and Monuments Record Card. The Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record began to be developed during the 1970s. The details of individual archaeological sites and findspots were written on record cards. These record cards were used until the 1990s, when their details were entered on to a computerised system. The record cards are still kept at the office of the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
source WMA West Midlands Archaeology. This publication contains a short description for each of the sites where archaeological work has taken place in the previous year. It covers Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. Some of these descriptions include photographs, plans and drawings of the sites and/or the finds that have been discovered. The publication is produced by the Council For British Archaeology (CBA) West Midlands and is published annually. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
period Modern The Modern Period, about 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 – 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 – 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIII’s (1509 – 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
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period modern About 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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monument YARD * A paved area, generally found at the back of a house. back
monument POOL * A small body of water, either natural or artificial. back
monument ROSE GARDEN * A garden, often geometrical in layout, or area for the cultivation of roses. back
monument ICEHOUSE * A structure, partly underground, for the preservation of ice for use during warmer weather. back
monument CONSERVATORY * A glasshouse used to grow and display tender decorative plants. May be either an extension to a house or freestanding. back
monument GRANGE * An outlying farm or estate, usually belonging to a religious order or feudal lord. Specifically related to core buildings and structures associated with monastic land holding. Use specific term where known. back
monument MILL RACE * The channel of water that provides a current of water to drive a millwheel. back
monument GOLF COURSE * A prepared area of ground used to play the game of golf on. back
monument HOUSE * A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known. back
monument WEIR * A dam constructed on the reaches of a canal or river designed to retain the water and to regulate its flow. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument BORDER * A strip of ground forming a fringe to a garden. Use more specific type where known. back
monument KITCHEN GARDEN * A private garden established primarily for growing vegetables and herbs for domestic consumption. back
monument FOUNTAIN * An artificial aperture from which water springs. The water supply usually came from a lake or reservoir higher up in order to ensure the necessary flow and pressure. More recently fountains have been powered by pumps. back
monument LODGE * A small building, often inhabited by a gatekeeper, gamekeeper or similar. Use specific type where known. back
monument WATERCOURSE * A channel used for or formed by the conveyance of water. Can be natural, eg. a river or artificial eg. an aqueduct. Use more specific type where known. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument LAKE * A large body of water surrounded by land. back
monument CULVERT * A drainage structure that extends across and beneath roadways, canals or embankments. back
monument DEER PARK * A large park for keeping deer. In medieval times the prime purpose was for hunting. back
monument STONE * Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function. back
monument FORMAL GARDEN * A garden of regular, linear or geometrical design, often associated with the traditional Italian, French and Dutch styles. back
monument PARK * An enclosed piece of land, generally large in area, used for hunting, the cultivation of trees, for grazing sheep and cattle or visual enjoyment. Use more specific type where known. back
monument ARCH * A structure over an opening usually formed of wedge-shaped blocks of brick or stone held together by mutual pressure and supported at the sides; they can also be formed from moulded concrete/ cast metal. A component; use for free-standing structure only. back
monument BALUSTRADE * A row of balusters, usually made of stone, surmounted by a rail or coping. back
monument FLOOR * A layer of stone, brick or boards, etc, on which people tread. Use broader site type where known. back
monument AVIARY * A house, enclosure or large cage for the keeping and breeding of birds. back
monument KNOT GARDEN * An intricately designed garden in which ground coves, low shrubs or coloured earths are arranged in interlacing patterns resembling knots back
monument MILL * A factory used for processing raw materials. Use more specific mill type where known. See also TEXTILE MILL, for more narrow terms. back
monument URN * A garden ornament, usually of stone or metal, designed in the the form of a vase used to receive the ashes of the dead. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument KITCHEN * A building or room where food is prepared and cooked. back
monument BOWLING GREEN * A closely mown piece of ground used for the game of lawn bowling. back
monument GLASSHOUSE * A building made chiefly of glass, used to grow plants and fruit in. Use more specific type where possible. back
monument CHURCH * A building used for public Christian worship. Use more specific type where known. back
monument SUNKEN GARDEN * An often secluded garden set below the level of surrounding ground, usually surrounded with terraces. back
monument RIDING SCHOOL * A school for instruction in the art of horsemanship. back
monument FACADE * Use wider site type where known. Only use term where no other part of original building survives. back
monument BUSINESS CENTRE * A building providing business premises to companies or individuals, sometimes for short periods, in exchange for a membership fee. back
monument ABBEY * A religious house governed by an abbot or abbess. Use with narrow terms of DOUBLE HOUSE, MONASTERY or NUNNERY. back
monument DRIVE * A road/carriage way giving access from the main road to the house, stables. back
monument CRICKET GROUND * The entire playing area and associated buildings upon which the game of cricket is played. back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
monument WALK * A place or path for walking in a park or garden. Use more specific type where possible. back
monument WATER FEATURE * A body of water, building or structure found in a park or garden used as a water supply or ornament. Use more specific type where known. back
monument PIT * A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known. back
monument PEDESTAL * A concrete, cylindrical pedestal on which a spigot mortar was mounted. The pedestal is often the only evidence for a Spigot Mortar emplacement to survive. back
monument PASTURE * A field covered with herbage for the grazing of livestock. back
monument PAVILION * A light, sometimes ornamental structure in a garden, park or place of recreation, used for entertainment or shelter. Use specific type where known. back
monument PARTERRE * A level space in a garden occupied by ornamental flower beds. back
monument GATEHOUSE * A gateway with one or more chambers over the entrance arch; the flanking towers housing stairs and additional rooms. Use with wider site type where known. back
monument WELL * A shaft or pit dug in the ground over a supply of spring-water. back
monument PIER * A structure of iron or wood, open below, running out into the sea and used as a promenade and landing stage. back
monument CASCADE * An artificial fall of water often taking the form of a water staircase. back
monument BRIDGE * A structure of wood, stone, iron, brick or concrete, etc, with one or more intervals under it to span a river or other space. Use specific type where known. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument CEMETERY * An area of ground, set apart for the burial of the dead. back
monument WOOD * A tract of land with trees, sometimes acting as a boundary or barrier, usually smaller and less wild than a forest. back
monument ENGINE * A machine, powered by steam, gas, electricity or other energy source, which produces energy of movement. Use for stationary industrial engines rather than transport use. back
monument BASTION * A flanking tower, or projection from the main walls of a defensive work from which a garrison can defend the ground in front or on the flank. back
monument TRENCH * An excavation used as a means of concealment, protection or both. back
monument FOOTBRIDGE * A narrow bridge for people and animals to cross on foot. back
monument SQUARE * An open space or area, usually square in plan, in a town or city, enclosed by residential and/or commercial buildings, frequently containing a garden or laid out with trees. back
monument SUMMERHOUSE * A building in a garden or park designed to provide a shady retreat from the heat of the sun. back
monument BEEHIVE * A receptacle used as a home for bees, traditionally made of thick straw-work in the shape of a dome, but sometimes made of wood. back
monument GARDEN * An enclosed piece of ground devoted to the cultivation of flowers, fruit or vegetables and/or recreational purposes. Use more specific type where known. back
monument LANDSCAPE PARK * Grounds, usually associated with a country house, laid out so as to produce the effect of natural scenery back
monument SHED * A slight structure built for shelter or storage, or for use as a workshop, either attached as a lean-to to a permanent building or separate. Use more specific type where known. back
monument WATER CHANNEL * An artificial watercourse for the conveyance of water. back
monument STRUCTURE * A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. If known, use more specific type. back
monument ORANGERY * A gallery or building in a garden, usually south facing, used for the growing of oranges and other fruit. back
monument HEDGE * Usually a row of bushes or small trees planted closely together to form a boundary between pieces of land or at the sides of a road. back
monument STABLE * A building in which horses are accommodated. back
monument ORCHARD * An enclosure used for the cultivation of fruit trees. back
monument PLANTATION * A group of planted trees or shrubs, generally of uniform age and of a single species. back
monument PIPELINE * A conduit or pipes, used primarily for conveying petroleum from oil wells to a refinery, or for supplying water to a town or district, etc. back
monument MEADOW * A piece of grassland, often near a river, permanently covered with grass which is mown for use as hay. back
monument ROUND * A small, Iron Age/Romano-British enclosed settlement found in South West England. back
monument ISLAND * A piece of land, sometimes man-made, completely surrounded by water. back
monument CROSS * A free-standing structure, in the form of a cross (+), symbolizing the structure on which Jesus Christ was crucified and sacred to the Christian faith. Use specific type where known. back
monument WALLED GARDEN * A garden surrounded by a substantial wall. back
monument ANIMAL CEMETERY * A burial site for animals. back
monument GARDEN WALL * A stone or brick wall either in, or enclosing, a garden. back
monument QUARRY * An excavation from which stone for building and other functions, is obtained by cutting, blasting, etc. back
monument GATE * A movable stucture which enables or prevents entrance to be gained. Usually situated in a wall or similar barrier and supported by gate posts. back
monument GARDEN TERRACE * A flat, level area of ground within a garden. Often raised and accessed by steps. back
monument LAWN * A flat, and usually level area of mown and cultivated grass, attached to a house. back
monument STEPS * A series of flat-topped structures, usually made of stone or wood, used to facilitate a person's movement from one level to another. back
monument STREAM * A natural flow or current of water issuing from a source. back
monument FOOTPATH * A path for pedestrians only. back
monument FENCE * A construction of wood or metal used to enclose an area of land, a building, etc. back
monument SHRUBBERY * A plantation of shrubs. back
monument WALL * An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known. back
monument GARAGE * Use only for buildings which house motor vehicles. Includes garages for vehicle repair. For petrol sales use PETROL STATION. back
monument FULLING MILL * A mill for beating and cleaning cloth, using soap or fullers earth. back
monument SPA * A medicinal or mineral spring often with an associated building. back
monument DAM * A barrier of concrete or earth, etc, built across a river to create a reservoir of water for domestic and/or industrial usage. back
monument TERRACE * A row of houses attached to and adjoining one another and planned and built as one unit. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record