Information for record number MWA4433:
Site of Roman Temple on Grimstock Hill

Summary The site of a Roman temple lying 200m east of Lichfield Road, Coleshill. The temple was found during an archaeological excavation.
What Is It?  
Type: Temple, Temenos Ditch
Period: Romano-British (43 AD - 409 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Coleshill
District: North Warwickshire, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 19 90
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record
Picture(s) attached

 
Description

 
Source Number  

1 Discovered March 1978. Observations made during building work indicated a settlement, dating to the 2nd century AD, which extended along a gravel terrace at the edge of the floodplain of the River Cole. At the N end is a stone walled enclosure with a number of internal structures.
2 Excavation was continued by BUFAU in 1979. The whole interior of a roughly rectangular enclosure, 65m N-S by 45m E-W was cleared. Possible entrance in E wall and buttresses on NE and SE corner. The centre of the enclosure was occupied by a Romano-Celtic temple. This consisted of a double square building with two later annexes. This was preceded by a rectangular building with an apse and also by an earlier wooden temple, and all three shrines overlay the Late Iron Age settlement (PRN 5130). A number of small 'votive cups' were found. The pottery is mainly 2nd century, but the coin series continues to the 370s. The stone temple had a coin of Domitian (cAD 85) in its construction trench and the building appears to have been robbed in the 17th century (see PRN 3682). A number of other buildings are also under Excavation in the temenos.
3 Further Excavation. Traces of an earlier building than the wooden temple could indicate that it had a precursor. At the time of the construction of the wooden temple a huge cobbled area was created. The second phase was probably 2nd century or early 3rd century. Various other structures were excavated. Use of the temple appears to have continued into the 4th century. Many brooches, tweezers and toilet items have been found.
4 Further interim report.
5 Report on Excavations and brief interpretative account. Details four phases of the temple; a wooden construction followed by two stone structures, with later additions. Details and plans of the shrines, the precinct wall and the bath building.
6 The full report on Excavations carried out between July 1978 and 1980.This confirms the phasing given in
5. This includes details of the pre-temple phase the temenos ditch, ancillary buildings within the temenos, and the bath house. Includes detailed plans and finds reports.
7 Brief interim report on Excavations 1978-1980. Provides a summary of the phasing of the site, together with a series of phase plans.
8 Brief set of articles on early work on the site, carried out by Chelmsley History Society/ Atherstone Archaeological Group.
9 Ceramic petrology report from Romano-British pottery excavated from this site.
 
Sources

Source No: 9
Source Type: Archaeological Report
Title: Romano-British Pottery from Coleshill, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Williams, D
Date:
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 3422
   
Source No: 3
Source Type: Plan
Title: WMA vol 22
Author/originator: Magilton J R
Date: 1979
Page Number: 47
Volume/Sheet: 22
   
Source No: 6
Source Type: Serial
Title: TBAS vol 110
Author/originator: J Magilton
Date: 2006
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 4
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 23
Author/originator: Magilton J R
Date: 1980
Page Number: 31-2, 38
Volume/Sheet: 23
   
Source No: 2
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 22
Author/originator: Magilton J R
Date: 1979
Page Number: 48
Volume/Sheet: 22
   
Source No: 1
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMANS no 21
Author/originator: Carver M
Date: 1978
Page Number: 60
Volume/Sheet: 21
   
Source No: 8
Source Type: Serial
Title: Chelmsley History No 6
Author/originator: Dutton, J (ed.)
Date: 1978
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 5
Source Type: Unpublished document
Title: The Coleshill Roman Temple
Author/originator: J Magilton
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 7
Source Type: Unpublished document
Title: Roman Coleshill: An interim acccount of the Grimstock Hill excavations 1978-1980
Author/originator: Magilton J R
Date: 1980
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Images:  
The excavation of a Roman temple at Coleshill, North Warwickshire
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Click here for larger image  
 
A reconstruction of the Roman temple excavated at Coleshill
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 1980
Click here for larger image  
 
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Glossary

 
Word or Phrase
Description  
source TBAS Transactions of the Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeological Society is a journal produced by the society annually. It contains articles about archaeological field work that has taken place in Birmingham and Warwickshire in previous years. Copies of the journal are kept by the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
source WMA West Midlands Archaeology. This publication contains a short description for each of the sites where archaeological work has taken place in the previous year. It covers Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. Some of these descriptions include photographs, plans and drawings of the sites and/or the finds that have been discovered. The publication is produced by the Council For British Archaeology (CBA) West Midlands and is published annually. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
source WMANS West Midlands Archaeological News Sheet, a publication that was produced each year, this later became West Midlands Archaeology. The West Midlands Arcaheological News Sheet contains reports about archaeological work that was carried out in the West Midlands region in the previous year. It includes information about sites dating from the Prehistoric to the Post Medieval periods. It was produced the Department of Extramural Studies at Birmingham University. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique excavation Archaeologists excavate sites so that they can find information and recover archaeological materials before they are destroyed by erosion, construction or changes in land-use.

Depending on how complicated and widespread the archaeological deposits are, excavation can be done by hand or with heavy machinery. Archaeologists may excavate a site in a number of ways; either by open area excavation, by digging a test pit or a trial trench.
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period Iron Age About 800 BC to 43 AD

The Iron Age comes after the Bronze Age and before the Roman period. It is a time when people developed the skills and knowledge to work and use iron, hence the name ‘Iron Age’ which is given to this period. Iron is a much tougher and more durable metal than bronze but it also requires more skill to make objects from it. People continued to use bronze during this period.
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period Roman About 43 AD to 409 AD (the 1st century AD to the 5th century AD)

The Roman period comes after the Iron Age and before the Saxon period.

The Roman period in Britain began in 43 AD when a Roman commander called Aulus Plautius invaded the south coast, near Kent. There were a series of skirmishes with the native Britons, who were defeated. In the months that followed, more Roman troops arrived and slowly moved westwards and northwards.
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monument TOILET * A small room or building containing a lavatory and, in more recent times, washing facilities. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument SETTLEMENT * A small concentration of dwellings. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument STONE * Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function. back
monument SHRINE * A place where worship is offered or devotions are paid to a deity or saint. back
monument RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE * A rectangular shaped area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier. back
monument BATH HOUSE * A building equipped with facilities for bathing, and occasionally public baths. back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument SQUARE * An open space or area, usually square in plan, in a town or city, enclosed by residential and/or commercial buildings, frequently containing a garden or laid out with trees. back
monument STRUCTURE * A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. If known, use more specific type. back
monument WALL * An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known. back
monument TEMPLE * Use for places of worship. For later landscape features use, eg. GARDEN TEMPLE. back
monument CONSTRUCTION TRENCH * A trench dug in order to receive the foundations of a structure such as a stone wall etc. back
monument PRECINCT WALL * A wall enclosing a precinct. back
monument TERRACE * A row of houses attached to and adjoining one another and planned and built as one unit. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record