Information for record number MWA6953:
Packwood House Formal Gardens, Lapworth

Summary The site of a park and formal garden dating from the 17th century onwards. There are three gazebos and the garden contains a topiary garden said to represent the Sermon on the Mount. It is situated at Packwood House.
What Is It?  
Type: Landscape Park, Formal Garden, Walk, Garden Terrace, Pool, Fountain, Gazebo, Sunken Garden, Topiary Garden, Pond, Lake, Kitchen Garden
Period: Modern - Modern (1670 AD - 2050 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Lapworth
District: Warwick, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 17 72
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Registered Park or Garden (Grade: II*)
Sites & Monuments Record
Picture(s) attached


Source Number  

5 Packwood House's 43 hectare site comprises 1.5 hectares of formal gardens, and 41.5 hectares of parkland. A minor road, Grove road, passes from north to south through the site, immediately to the east of the House. ENTRANCES AND APPROACHES Packwood House is today approached from Grove road, the minor road which runs from north to south through the site. The road passes through a forecourt to the east of the House which is enclosed to the south and north by brick walls which flank tall, rusticated brick piers surmounted by pyramidal brick caps. To the east the forecourt is enclosed by a buttressed brick wall which retains Two Pits park at a higher level to the east. The park is approached by a flight of semi-circular brick steps aligned on the east facade of the House. At the top of the steps a simple wrought-iron gate set in a wrought-iron screen 10m long leads to a footpath within the north-east avenue which extends through Two Pits park to join Chessetts wood road 1km north-east of the House. The forecourt is enclosed to the south-west by the mid 17th century walls of the south garden, while to the north-west it adjoins mid 17th century barns, stables and outbuildings. A gravelled carriage turn with a central octagonal lawn lies to the west of the road, below a pair of early 20th century ornamental wrought-iron gates which are supported by a pair of mid 17th century rusticated brick piers surmounted by stone ball finials. PRINCIPAL BUILDING Packwood House stands towards the centre of the site, immediately to the west of Grove road. The late 16th century House is roughly square on plan with projecting full-height gabled porches on the east and west facades. gardenS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS There are formal gardens on all sides of the House, with areas of informal pleasure grounds adjacent to the lake to the south-west and west. The east garden lies between the forecourt and the entrance to the House, and is enclosed to the north by the mid 17th century brick outbuildings, and to the south by a high, mid 17th century brick wall which contains heating flues for wall-trained fruit trees. A central stone-flagged walk flanked by rectangular panels of lawn leads west from the entrance gates to the front door of the House. The south garden comprises a rectangular lawn which is enclosed by high, mid 17th century brick walls to the east and west, and by a mid 17th century raised terrace walk to the south which is approached by a flight of semi-circular brick steps flanked by brick piers with carved stone urns. To the north of the south garden a small stone-flagged terrace enclosed by low brick walls covered with climbing roses to the south-east and south-west lies immediately below the south facade of the House; a small niche containing a pool and wall fountain is set into the east wall. Each corner of the south garden is marked by a brick gazebo of square plan ornamented with corner pilasters. The mid 17th century north-east and north-west gazebos have pyramidal tiled roofs and are of two storeys with ground- and first-floor timber doors facing the garden. The south-west gazebo is believed to be mid 17th century, while that to the south-east was rebuilt in the early 20th century as part of Baron Ash's restoration of the garden. The southern gazebos terminate the raised south terrace to east and west, and have flat roofs with arched entrances facing along the terrace, and north to semi-circular brick steps which descend to the garden. The south-west gazebo contains a painted timber bench and a circular stone table supported on a brick pedestal; an oval window in the south wall is surrounded by shells. The south-east gazebo contains a timber bench seat. The south terrace walk comprises a stone-flagged walk flanked by herbaceous borders, and a low parapet wall to the south allows views across the topiary garden. The topiary garden to the south of the south garden is entered through an ornamental wrought-iron gate with an overthrow which is supported on rusticated brick piers with pyramidal caps. Semicircular brick steps descend from the gate to the level of the topiary garden, and at the base of the south face of the terrace retaining wall are fifteen pairs of arched recesses for bee skips. The north garden is enclosed by high brick walls to the west and east, and by a lower brick wall to the north which allows views through an area of trees and shrubs to the park. To the south a screen wall links the north-west corner of the outbuildings and the north-east corner of the Great Hall and encloses the service court. The north drive is adjoined by lawns to the north and south, and box topiary figures are placed along its edge in wooden tubs. A brick-lined rectangular pool extends south from the mid-point of the north wall of the garden, and is fed by a lead lion-mask spout. To the north-west of the House an area of informal lawns is separated from the park by an L-shaped pool which is fed by the outflow from the lake; this is shown on the 1723 estate plan. Some 30m north-west of the House a late 17th century plunge pool is enclosed by yew hedges with a pair of brick piers surmounted by terracotta finials to the south-west and north-west. park The park lies to the east and west of the House, and is divided from north to south by Grove road. Two Pits park to the east remains grazed meadow and is crossed from west-south-west to east-north-east by a mixed avenue of deciduous trees. Two square ponds flank the gate leading from the park to the eastern avenue 400m north-east of the House, while an L-shaped pond lies in Brick Kiln Coppice 240m south-east of the House. Two further parkland enclosures lie to the north of Two Pits park, rising gently to Pavis Cottage. The west park is today a series of large meadow enclosures divided by fences with scattered mature deciduous trees, some of which survive from earlier field boundaries. KITCHEN GARDEN The KITCHEN GARDEN lies to the east the stables and barn on the east side of Grove road, 100m north-east of the House. It is enclosed by high brick walls to the north and east, with lower brick walls to the south and south-west, and the east facade of the stables to the west. Arched timber doors are set in the north, west and south walls, and the interior of the garden is laid out with a central north/south gravel walk and a series of box-edged beds separated by transverse gravel walks. A range of brick frames survive to the south of the glasshouses, while a brick bothy stands against the outer face of the north-east wall. The late 20th century. Arrangement of walks and beds within the KITCHEN GARDEN reflects that shown on the 1723 estate plan.
2 Recording of the groundworks for a new pathway on behalf of the National Trust recorded a series of drains associated with earlier, probably 19th-century, arrangements of the gardens.
3 Recording for groundworks in 2005 on the behalf of the National Trust recorded a series of drains the oldest of these seem to be three brick-built drains, also three parallel runs of cylindrical ceramic drains where noted, there was some small finds of 19th century pottery found. These drains where all found south of the House just beyond the garden wall separating the House from the southern garden. Later on in 2009 the National Trust again commissioned ground works which led to the recording of archaeological evidence both in the months of January and October. In January 2009 a capped drain was found which consisted of hand made bricks laid in a clay bedding the drain was one brick wide and four brick high, and was capped with an limestone capping. In a shallow layer of silt 0.05m deep was found in which a few sherds of mid 19th century pottery was found. In October 2009 an other capped drain was found of a differing type of construction to the one found in January, this October capped drain was formed of a neatly cut limestone slabs for a base to which five courses of neatly laid and mortared hand bricks where laid to from a wall and then capped with neatly cut limestone slabs it seems to of been a 19th century construction. This October drain also cut a brick feature which seemed to be a small brick drain of which a date of 18th-19th century is a likely construction date.
4 negative watching brief of a pipe trench.
6 A conservation management plan for the parkland was created in 2012. As part of the creation of the plan all the main features within the parkland were photographed and their condition assessed. A detailed history of the site is also included in the report.
7 The House and the gardens have been extensively altered in the 20th century in such a way that the seem idealised versions of a 17th-18th century site.

Source No: 1
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Register of Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England
Author/originator: English Heritage
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Source No: 7
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Warwickshire Register Review Report & Recommendations
Author/originator: Lovie, Jonathan
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 6
Source Type: Conservation Plan
Title: Packwood House, Parkland Plan
Author/originator: The National Trust
Date: 2012
Page Number:
Source No: 5
Source Type: Statuatory List
Title: National Heritage List for England
Author/originator: Historic England
Page Number:
Source No: 3
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Archaeological Recording at Packwood House, Lapworth, Warwickshire in 2005 and 2009
Author/originator: Warwickshire Museum
Date: 2010
Page Number:
Source No: 4
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Packwood House, Lapworth, Warwickshire, Archaeological watching brief
Author/originator: Hunter J
Date: 2011
Page Number:
Source No: 2
Source Type: Serial
Title: West Midlands Archaeology vol 48
Author/originator: S Watt (ed.)
Date: 2005
Page Number:
A view of the gardens at Packwood House, Lapworth
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 1900s
Click here for larger image  
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Word or Phrase
none Registered Park or Garden Parks and gardens that are considered to be of historic importance are placed on a register. The register comprises a variety of town gardens, public parks and country estates. The main purpose of the register is to help ensure that the features and qualities that make the parks and gardens special are safeguarded if changes are being considered which could affect them.

The gardens on the register are divided into three grades in order to give some guidance about their significance, in a similar way to Listed Buildings. The majority of parks and gardens on the Register are of sufficient interest as to be designated as grade II. Some, however, are recognised as being of exceptional historic interest and are awarded a star giving them grade II* status. A small number are of international importance, and are classified as grade I.
period Modern The Modern Period, about 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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period modern About 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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monument POOL * A small body of water, either natural or artificial. back
monument LAYER * An archaeological unit of soil in a horizontal plane which may seal features or be cut through by other features. back
monument HOUSE * A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known. back
monument BENCH * A long seat, usually made of stone or wood, with or without a back. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument HERBACEOUS BORDER * A long bed planted with perennial flowers and plants. back
monument KITCHEN GARDEN * A private garden established primarily for growing vegetables and herbs for domestic consumption. back
monument GAZEBO * A garden house situated to provide a commanding view. back
monument CARVED STONE * A stone (including standing stones, natural boulders and rock outcrops) decorated with carved motifs. back
monument GREAT HALL * A large communal room often occupying the full height of the building, used for functions such as meetings, entertainments etc. Traditionally found in medieval buildings but also found in later buildings emulating medieval architecture. back
monument FOUNTAIN * An artificial aperture from which water springs. The water supply usually came from a lake or reservoir higher up in order to ensure the necessary flow and pressure. More recently fountains have been powered by pumps. back
monument TOPIARY GARDEN * A garden containing trees or shrubs pruned and trained into various geometric, zoomorphic or fantastic shapes. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument LAKE * A large body of water surrounded by land. back
monument STONE * Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function. back
monument FORMAL GARDEN * A garden of regular, linear or geometrical design, often associated with the traditional Italian, French and Dutch styles. back
monument PARK * An enclosed piece of land, generally large in area, used for hunting, the cultivation of trees, for grazing sheep and cattle or visual enjoyment. Use more specific type where known. back
monument FLOOR * A layer of stone, brick or boards, etc, on which people tread. Use broader site type where known. back
monument STONE TABLE * A table made of stone, found in streets, parks, etc. back
monument URN * A garden ornament, usually of stone or metal, designed in the the form of a vase used to receive the ashes of the dead. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument FLUE * A passageway, duct or pipe use for the conveyance of heat, gasses, smoke or air. back
monument POND * A body of still water often artificially formed for a specific purpose. Use specifc type where known. back
monument GLASSHOUSE * A building made chiefly of glass, used to grow plants and fruit in. Use more specific type where possible. back
monument DRAIN * An artificial channel for draining water or carrying it off. back
monument SUNKEN GARDEN * An often secluded garden set below the level of surrounding ground, usually surrounded with terraces. back
monument FACADE * Use wider site type where known. Only use term where no other part of original building survives. back
monument DRIVE * A road/carriage way giving access from the main road to the house, stables. back
monument FORECOURT * The court or enclosed space at the front of a building or structure. back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
monument WALK * A place or path for walking in a park or garden. Use more specific type where possible. back
monument PIT * A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known. back
monument PEDESTAL * A concrete, cylindrical pedestal on which a spigot mortar was mounted. The pedestal is often the only evidence for a Spigot Mortar emplacement to survive. back
monument SEAT * An external structure used to sit on. back
monument PIER * A structure of iron or wood, open below, running out into the sea and used as a promenade and landing stage. back
monument FIELD * An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock. back
monument OUTBUILDING * A detached subordinate building. Use specific type where known, eg. DAIRY. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument WOOD * A tract of land with trees, sometimes acting as a boundary or barrier, usually smaller and less wild than a forest. back
monument BOTHY * Small building in which labourers, such as miners and tin workers. They are also associated with gardens where they provide on-site accommodation for gardeners and estate workers. back
monument TRENCH * An excavation used as a means of concealment, protection or both. back
monument SQUARE * An open space or area, usually square in plan, in a town or city, enclosed by residential and/or commercial buildings, frequently containing a garden or laid out with trees. back
monument BRICK KILN * A kiln or furnace for the firing of bricks. back
monument GARDEN * An enclosed piece of ground devoted to the cultivation of flowers, fruit or vegetables and/or recreational purposes. Use more specific type where known. back
monument LANDSCAPE PARK * Grounds, usually associated with a country house, laid out so as to produce the effect of natural scenery back
monument BARN * A building for the storage and processing of grain crops and for housing straw, farm equipment and occasionally livestock and their fodder. Use more specific type where known. back
monument HEDGE * Usually a row of bushes or small trees planted closely together to form a boundary between pieces of land or at the sides of a road. back
monument STABLE * A building in which horses are accommodated. back
monument MEADOW * A piece of grassland, often near a river, permanently covered with grass which is mown for use as hay. back
monument COPPICE * A managed small wood or thicket of underwood grown to be periodically cut to encourage new growth providing smaller timber. back
monument GARDEN WALL * A stone or brick wall either in, or enclosing, a garden. back
monument GATE * A movable stucture which enables or prevents entrance to be gained. Usually situated in a wall or similar barrier and supported by gate posts. back
monument GARDEN TERRACE * A flat, level area of ground within a garden. Often raised and accessed by steps. back
monument PLUNGE POOL * A small cold water bath, often known as a natatio when part of a Roman bath complex. back
monument LAWN * A flat, and usually level area of mown and cultivated grass, attached to a house. back
monument STEPS * A series of flat-topped structures, usually made of stone or wood, used to facilitate a person's movement from one level to another. back
monument FOOTPATH * A path for pedestrians only. back
monument FENCE * A construction of wood or metal used to enclose an area of land, a building, etc. back
monument WALL * An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known. back
monument RETAINING WALL * A wall constructed for the purpose of confining or supporting a mass of earth or water. back
monument WORKS * Usually a complex of buildings for the processing of raw materials. Use specific type where known. back
monument TERRACE * A row of houses attached to and adjoining one another and planned and built as one unit. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record