Information for record number MWA798:
Chesterton Roman Town

Summary Site of the Roman town of Chesterton by the side of the Fosse Way. Site consists of a defended enclosure and an extensive extramural area of roads, buildings and boundaries. Occupation appears to run from the 1st to 4th century AD.
What Is It?  
Type: Town, Findspot
Period: Romano-British (43 AD - 409 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Chesterton and Kingston
District: Stratford on Avon, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 34 59
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Scheduled Monument (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record
Description

 
Source Number  

1 Site of Roman town by the side of the Fosse Way. Site consists of a defended enclosure and an extensive extramural area of roads, buildings and boundaries. Occupation appears to run from the 1st to 4th century AD. The settlement is approximately 27 ha in extent. See additional cards for further details.
2 Note.
3 Descriptive text.
4 A programme of geophysical survey was carried out within the Roman town enclosure in 1991. The magnetometer survey showed up several interesting features interpreted as a possible road to the west and buildings to the north. The rest of the Site showed a mixed complex of features: of particular interest was a possible bridge over the defensive ditch to the west. In 1992-3 a further survey in surrounding fields to the W and S of the town revealed Roman activity over a larger area than previously known. A further 100 30m x 30m squares revealed the presence of a very large Roman settlement with mixed magnetic results. When analysed these appeared to represent a pattern of ditches, walls, pits, earthworks and other linear features. There was also a sharply defined line running from the main defensive enclosure suggesting a possible road, with ditches either side, going to Chesterton village. The W side of the settlement is overlain by ridge and furrow running across the Site and cutting a major ditch which extends for 160m to the N. High magnetic readings and iron slag visible in the field suggest industrial activity.
5 On 24 Jan 1992 contractors excavated trenches on the W side of the B4455 'Fosse Way' within the ramparts of the camp. The trenches were observed by staff of the Warwickshire Museum and without exception were seen to be cut through modern disturbance. No archaeological finds were recovered from the trenches, and no archaeological deposits were identified in the trench walls. However further observation on 13th February showed new exposure on the east side of the carriageway where the contractors had machined away part of the earthwork along the entire length of the Camp. Rubbly stone in this section could represent a Roman context.
6 Sketch.
7Beneath the rubble surface of a Roman road, a small stone drain was uncovered. This lay on top of a ditch filled with organic material, and containing a drainage system.
8 Various finds made by WART, including a considerable quantity of Samian ware.
9 Small fortified Roman settlement straddling the Fosse Way together with the buried remains of a much larger extrmural settlement located largely to the south and east of the enclosure. Evidence points to extensive occupation levels, building remains, streets and roads, wells and drainage systems. Artefactual evidence points to occupation from the second to fourth centuries AD. Indication of earlier Iron age occupation of the Site. The remains of a probable Anglo-Saxon cemetery suggest that the Site remained significant after the fall of the Roman Empire.
10 Roman coin found in 1993. Method of recovery unrecorded. Only grid reference given was SP35NW.
11 Undated report of damage to the Site.
12 Archival material from 1922.
13 Scheduling information from 1987.
14 Letter from EH in 1995 confirming the area of scheduling at that time.
15 Letters from 1960 about proposed road works and a possible excavation.
16 Letter from Leicester in 1961 reporting pottery apparently removed from the scheduled area.
17 Correspondence from 1966/7 about damage to the Site by a bulldozer and by ploughing.
18 Plans showing the location of the skeletons disturbed by the bulldozer in 1966.
19 excavation report from 1967.
20 excavation archival material from 1967.
21 Plan from 1966.
22 Letter from 1970 with details of proposed cultivation restraint on the part of the owner.
23 Preservation Order served in 1972.
24 Preservation Order served in 1973.
25 Correspondence from 1977 about proposed work on the brook. Subsequent observation revealed only natural contexts at section A and only some flecks of charcoal at the erosian section point B.
26 Correspondence from 1983 about excavation reports.
27 Record cards from 1971 noting finds of pottery, some from the 1969 excavation.
28 Material from 1992 and 1993 relating to the removal of human remains.
29 Possible RB items found at SP342598 in 1984.
30 A request to EH in 1990 for permission for an extension for geophysical surveying.
31 A report from 1995 about an incident with a metal detectorist digging holes within the SAM.
32 Plan showing finds from 1993.
33 Plan of the remains of th North Gate of the Camp. Undated.
34 Interim report from WART.
35 Magnetometer report from WART.
36Archaeological observation of works at Tyler Packaging revealed evidence for Romano-British occupation, including an occupation layer and two pits. The known extent of the settlement has been extended to reflect this evidence.
 
Sources

Source No: 1
Source Type: Verbal communication
Title: R.C. Hingley personal comments
Author/originator: R C Hingley
Date:
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 10
Source Type: Museum Enquiry Form
Title: WMEF 3100
Author/originator:
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: E/3100
   
Source No: 11
Source Type: Unpublished document
Title: The Roman Town at Chesterton On Fosse
Author/originator: Webster, G
Date: Undated
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 12
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Chesterton Camp
Author/originator: Chatwin, P.B.
Date: 1954
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 13
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Roman Small Town at Chesterton Camp
Author/originator: HBMCE
Date: 1987
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 14
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Roman Camp, Chesterton and Kingston
Author/originator: EH
Date: 1995
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 15
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Chesterton
Author/originator: Ministry of Works
Date: 1960
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 16
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Chesterton
Author/originator: Clarke, D., City of Leicester Museums and Art Gallery
Date: 1961
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 17
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: RB cemetery, Chesterton
Author/originator: JMM et al.
Date: 1966/7
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 18
Source Type: Plan
Title: Position of ? Saxon Inhumations at Chesterton
Author/originator: Docherty - Delia J
Date: 1966
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 18
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Chesterton
Author/originator: The Home Office
Date: 1992-3
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 19
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Chesterton on Fosse
Author/originator: Taylor S
Date: 1967
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 2
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Roman "Camp", Chesterton
Author/originator: Ministry of Works/DoE
Date: 1923?
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 20
Source Type: Excavation archive
Title: Chesterton Roman Town
Author/originator: Taylor, S.J.
Date: 1967
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 21
Source Type: Plan
Title: Fencing of Gated Roads: Chesterton
Author/originator: County Surveyor's Office
Date: 1966
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 22
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Chesterton Roman Camp/Town
Author/originator: Ministry of Works
Date: 1970
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 23
Source Type: Unpublished document
Title: Preservation Order, Chesterton Roman Camp
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1972
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 24
Source Type: Unpublished document
Title: Chesterton Roman Camp
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1973
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 25
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Chesterton Roman Camp; Tachbrook Improvement Scheme
Author/originator: WCC
Date: 1977
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 26
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Chesterton on Fosse
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1983
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 27
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: Chesterton Roman Camp pottery finds
Author/originator:
Date: 1971
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 29
Source Type: Note
Title: Chesterton Camp
Author/originator: Fowler R
Date: 1984
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 3
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: SAM list
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1985
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 30
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Chesterton Roman Camp
Author/originator: WM
Date: 1990
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 31
Source Type: Unpublished document
Title: Chesterton Roman Camp
Author/originator: Leigh, Judith
Date: 1995-6
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 32
Source Type: Plan
Title: Chesterton Fort
Author/originator: Durrant, F.M.
Date: 1993
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 33
Source Type: Plan
Title: Chesterton-on-Fosse
Author/originator:
Date:
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 34
Source Type: Archaeological Report
Title: 'Roman Chesterton'
Author/originator: David Adams
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 35
Source Type: Geophysical Survey Report
Title: Chesterton Roman Camp. GS on the area W of the Fosse.
Author/originator: David Adams
Date: 2000
Page Number: 7
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 36
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Archaeological Observation at Tyler Packaging, Fosse Way, Chesterton and Kingston, Warwickshire
Author/originator: C Coutts and C Rann
Date: 2009
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 0929
   
Source No: 4
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 36 (1993)
Author/originator: White, R (ed)
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 36
   
Source No: 5
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Chesterton Roman Camp
Author/originator: Palmer S
Date: 1992
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 6
Source Type: Drawing
Title: RB Chesterton
Author/originator: Palmer S
Date: 1992
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 7
Source Type: Archaeological Report
Title: 'Roman Chesterton'
Author/originator: David Adams
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 8
Source Type: Archaeological Report
Title: 'Roman Chesterton'
Author/originator: David Adams
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 9
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Roman Rural Settlment at Windmill Hill Farm
Author/originator: DCMS
Date: 2002
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Images:  
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Glossary

 
Word or Phrase
Description  
monument BRIDGE * A structure of wood, stone, iron, brick or concrete, etc, with one or more intervals under it to span a river or other space. Use specific type where known. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument CARRIAGEWAY * The part of a road intended for vehicular traffic. back
monument CEMETERY * An area of ground, set apart for the burial of the dead. back
monument DEFENDED ENCLOSURE * An enclosed area of land of varying size and shape which shows traces of defence. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument DRAIN * An artificial channel for draining water or carrying it off. back
monument DRAINAGE SYSTEM * A system of artificial or natural drains and ditches used to drain off surplus water. back
monument EARTHWORK * A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification. back
technique Earthwork Earthworks can take the form of banks, ditches and mounds. They are usually created for a specific purpose. A bank, for example, might be the remains of a boundary between two or more fields. Some earthworks may be all that remains of a collapsed building, for example, the grassed-over remains of building foundations.

In the winter, when the sun is lower in the sky than during the other seasons, earthworks have larger shadows. From the air, archaeologists are able to see the patterns of the earthworks more easily. Earthworks can sometimes be confusing when viewed at ground level, but from above, the general plan is much clearer.

Archaeologists often carry out an aerial survey or an earthwork survey to help them understand the lumps and bumps they can see on the ground.
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monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
technique excavation Archaeologists excavate sites so that they can find information and recover archaeological materials before they are destroyed by erosion, construction or changes in land-use.

Depending on how complicated and widespread the archaeological deposits are, excavation can be done by hand or with heavy machinery. Archaeologists may excavate a site in a number of ways; either by open area excavation, by digging a test pit or a trial trench.
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monument FARM * A tract of land, often including a farmhouse and ancillary buildings, used for the purpose of cultivation and the rearing of livestock, etc. Use more specific type where known. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument FIELD * An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock. back
monument FINDSPOT * The approximate location at which stray finds of artefacts were found. Index with object name. back
monument FORT * A permanently occupied position or building designed primarily for defence. back
monument GATE * A movable stucture which enables or prevents entrance to be gained. Usually situated in a wall or similar barrier and supported by gate posts. back
technique Geophysical Survey The measuring and recording of electrical resistivity or magnetism in order to determine the existence and outline of buried features such as walls and ditches. Geophysical techniques include resistivity survey, magnetometer survey and ground penetrating radar. View Image back
monument HUMAN REMAINS * The unarticulated remains of the body of a human being. If articulated use inhumation. back
monument INDUSTRIAL * This is the top term for the class. See INDUSTRIAL Class List for narrow terms. back
monument INHUMATION * An interment of unburnt, articulated human remains. Use specific type where known. back
period Iron Age About 800 BC to 43 AD

The Iron Age comes after the Bronze Age and before the Roman period. It is a time when people developed the skills and knowledge to work and use iron, hence the name ‘Iron Age’ which is given to this period. Iron is a much tougher and more durable metal than bronze but it also requires more skill to make objects from it. People continued to use bronze during this period.
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monument LINEAR FEATURE * A length of straight, curved or angled earthwork or cropmark of uncertain date or function. back
monument MAGNETOMETER * An instrument for measuring magnetic forces, especially the strength of terrestrial magnetism. back
technique Magnetometer Survey A magnetometer survey measures the earth's magnetic field and the effects that structures in the ground may have on it. For example, walls, pits and trenches might display different levels of magnetism than the surrounding ground. These differences can affect the readings taken during the survey. Once the readings have been recorded they are plotted out to produce a plan of features that exist below the ground. See also geophysical survey. back
period modern About 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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period Modern The Modern Period, about 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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monument MUSEUM * A building, group of buildings or space within a building, where objects of value such as works of art, antiquities, scientific specimens, or other artefacts are housed and displayed. back
monument OCCUPATION LAYER * A layer of remains left by a single culture, from which the culture can be dated or identified. back
technique Organic material Material that once used to be part of a living animal or plant, such as wood or leather. These materials decay unless they are in waterlogged, very dry or freezing conditions. Because of this, archaeologists do not often find these materials during excavations. back
monument PIT * A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known. back
monument RAMPART * A protective earthen mound, often the main defence of a fortification. back
monument RIDGE AND FURROW * A series of long, raised ridges separated by ditches used to prepare the ground for arable cultivation. This was a technique, characteristic of the medieval period. back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
period Roman About 43 AD to 409 AD (the 1st century AD to the 5th century AD)

The Roman period comes after the Iron Age and before the Saxon period.

The Roman period in Britain began in 43 AD when a Roman commander called Aulus Plautius invaded the south coast, near Kent. There were a series of skirmishes with the native Britons, who were defeated. In the months that followed, more Roman troops arrived and slowly moved westwards and northwards.
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source SAM List Scheduled Ancient Monument List. A list or schedule of archaelogical and historic monuments that are considered to be of national importance. The list contains a detailed description of each Scheduled Ancient Monument (SAM) and a map showing their location and extent. By being placed on the schedule, SAMs are protected by law from any unauthorised distrubance. The list has been compiled and is maintained by English Heritage. It is updated periodically. back
none Scheduled Monument Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAMs) are those archaeological sites which are legally recognised as being of national importance. They can range in date from prehistoric times to the Cold War period. They can take many different forms, including disused buildings or sites surviving as earthworks or cropmarks.

SAMs are protected by law from unlicensed disturbance and metal detecting. Written consent from the Secretary of State must be obtained before any sort of work can begin, including archaeological work such as geophysical survey or archaeological excavation. There are nearly 200 SAMs in Warwickshire.
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monument SETTLEMENT * A small concentration of dwellings. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument SQUARE * An open space or area, usually square in plan, in a town or city, enclosed by residential and/or commercial buildings, frequently containing a garden or laid out with trees. back
monument STONE * Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function. back
monument TOWN * An assemblage of public and private buildings, larger than a village and having more complete and independent local government. back
monument TRENCH * An excavation used as a means of concealment, protection or both. back
monument VILLAGE * A collection of dwelling-houses and other buildings, usually larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town with a simpler organisation and administration than the latter. back
monument WALL * An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known. back
monument WELL * A shaft or pit dug in the ground over a supply of spring-water. back
monument WINDMILL * A tower-like structure of wood or brick with a wooden cap and sails which are driven around by the wind producing power to work the internal machinery. Use with product type where known. back
source WMA West Midlands Archaeology. This publication contains a short description for each of the sites where archaeological work has taken place in the previous year. It covers Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. Some of these descriptions include photographs, plans and drawings of the sites and/or the finds that have been discovered. The publication is produced by the Council For British Archaeology (CBA) West Midlands and is published annually. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
source WMEF Warwickshire Museum Enquiry Form. These are forms that are filled in when a person brings an object to Warwickshire Museum to be identified. Amongst the information recorded on the form are details such as a description of the object, where and when it was found, and in some cases a sketch or photographs of it. Copies of the form can be viewed at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
monument WORKS * Usually a complex of buildings for the processing of raw materials. Use specific type where known. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record