Information for record number MWA835:
Site of Fulbrook Castle

Summary The site of Fulbrook Castle which was built in the 1400s, but is said to have been ruined by 1478. It is visible as a cropmark on aerial photographs and much brick and tile dating to the Medieval period has been found.
What Is It?  
Type: Castle
Period: Medieval (1066 AD - 1478 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Fulbrook
District: Stratford on Avon, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 25 60
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Scheduled Monument (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record
Picture(s) attached


Source Number  

1 15th century castle of John, Duke of Bedford. There are no remains above ground, but excavations some years ago are said to have produced brick-lined foundations, and recent ploughing has produced large quantities of brick and fragments of glazed tile and pottery. Sir William Compton demolished the castle in the time of Henry VIII.
2 A 'praty castle made of stone and brike'. Some of the castle was removed by Sir William Compton and, as some say, reused at Compton by Brailes.
3 By 1478 the castle was ruinous.
4 The whole field is strewn with bricks. About 40 years ago (c1790) stone steps leading down to a vault, or cellar, arched over with bricks, possibly once under a tower, were uncovered. An attempt was made to dig out the foundations of the building.
7 Aerial Photographs show a complex rectangular courtyard building on the site of the castle.
10 The cropmark site was examined. A very clear parch mark in which individual rooms and corridors placed around a central courtyard could be traced. Webster has suggested that this is a courtyard villa, but field investigation in 1985 produced evidence for a dense scatter of Medieval tile and brick mixed with small quantities of stone. The castle was situated on a hilltop with commanding views in all directions. There is no indication of any form of surrounding earthwork. The building was about 35m square. One wonders to what extent the castle was defensive; its plan is similar to phase 1 of Compton Wynyates.
11 Only a small proportion of the site has been excavated and, despite deep ploughing, substantial deposits will survive undisturbed. The sites importance is enhanced by documents which describe it as an early example of the use of brick.
14 Fulbrook castle was one of the last castles to be built in the 15th century and was granted a license to crenellate. In the 16th century some of the materials of the now ruinous castle were used by Sir William Compton at his new house in Compton Wynates.

Source No: 7
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Title: SP2560
Date: /71
Page Number: 002
Volume/Sheet: SP2560
Source No: 14
Source Type: Article in serial
Title: Symbols of Status in Medieval Warwickshire (1000-1500)
Author/originator: Hook D
Date: 2014
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 117
Source No: 1
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Victoria County History, vol 3, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Salzman L F (ed)
Date: 1945
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 3
Source No: 2
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Itinerary
Author/originator: Leland J
Date: 1535
Page Number: 47-8
Source No: 3
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Antiquities of Warwickshire
Author/originator: Dugdale W
Date: 1730
Page Number: 1056
Source No: 4
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Collections for the Continuation of the History and Antiquities of Warwickshire
Author/originator: Ward T
Date: 1830
Page Number: 134
Volume/Sheet: 1
Source No: 13
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Castle Hill, Fulbrook
Author/originator: Hingley R, WM
Date: 1985
Page Number:
Source No: 12
Source Type: Descriptive Text
Title: Castle Hill, Fulbrook
Author/originator: WM
Page Number:
Source No: 9
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: Fulbrook
Author/originator: Hingley R
Date: 1985
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Field Survey Record
Source No: 6
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: OS Card, 26SW1
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1961
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: SP26SW 1
Source No: 10
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 28 1985
Author/originator: Hingley R
Date: 1985
Page Number: 57-8
Volume/Sheet: 28
Source No: 5
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Castle Hill, Fulbrook
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1973
Page Number:
Source No: 11
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Fulbrook Castle
Author/originator: EH
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Source No: 8
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Castle Hill, Fulbrook
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1983
Page Number:
Fulbrook Castle visible as a cropmark
Copyright: WA Baker
Date: 1969
Click here for larger image  
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Word or Phrase
none Scheduled Monument Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAMs) are those archaeological sites which are legally recognised as being of national importance. They can range in date from prehistoric times to the Cold War period. They can take many different forms, including disused buildings or sites surviving as earthworks or cropmarks.

SAMs are protected by law from unlicensed disturbance and metal detecting. Written consent from the Secretary of State must be obtained before any sort of work can begin, including archaeological work such as geophysical survey or archaeological excavation. There are nearly 200 SAMs in Warwickshire.
source OS Card Ordnance Survey Record Card. Before the 1970s the Ordnance Survey (OS) were responsible for recording archaeological monuments during mapping exercises. This helped the Ordnance Survey to decide which monuments to publish on maps. During these exercises the details of the monuments were written down on record cards. Copies of some of the cards are kept at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. The responsibility for recording archaeological monuments later passed to the Royal Commission on Ancient and Historic Monuments. back
source WMA West Midlands Archaeology. This publication contains a short description for each of the sites where archaeological work has taken place in the previous year. It covers Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. Some of these descriptions include photographs, plans and drawings of the sites and/or the finds that have been discovered. The publication is produced by the Council For British Archaeology (CBA) West Midlands and is published annually. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique Earthwork Earthworks can take the form of banks, ditches and mounds. They are usually created for a specific purpose. A bank, for example, might be the remains of a boundary between two or more fields. Some earthworks may be all that remains of a collapsed building, for example, the grassed-over remains of building foundations.

In the winter, when the sun is lower in the sky than during the other seasons, earthworks have larger shadows. From the air, archaeologists are able to see the patterns of the earthworks more easily. Earthworks can sometimes be confusing when viewed at ground level, but from above, the general plan is much clearer.

Archaeologists often carry out an aerial survey or an earthwork survey to help them understand the lumps and bumps they can see on the ground.
technique Cropmark Cropmarks appear as light and dark marks in growing and ripening crops. These marks relate to differences in the soil below. For example, parched lines of grass may indicate stone walls. Crops that grow over stone features often ripen more quickly and are shorter than the surrounding crop. This is because there is less moisture in the soil where the wall lies.

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technique excavation Archaeologists excavate sites so that they can find information and recover archaeological materials before they are destroyed by erosion, construction or changes in land-use.

Depending on how complicated and widespread the archaeological deposits are, excavation can be done by hand or with heavy machinery. Archaeologists may excavate a site in a number of ways; either by open area excavation, by digging a test pit or a trial trench.
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technique Aerial Photograph Aerial photographs are taken during an aerial survey, which involves looking at the ground from above. It is usually easier to see cropmarks and earthworks when they are viewed from above. Aerial photographs help archaeologists to record what they see and to identify new sites. There are two kinds of aerial photographs; oblique and vertical. back
period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 – 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 – 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIII’s (1509 – 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
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monument HOUSE * A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument STONE * Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function. back
monument TOWER * A tall building, either round, square or polygonal in plan, used for a variety of purposes, including defence, as a landmark, for the hanging of bells, industrial functions, etc. Use more specific type where known. back
monument CELLAR * A room or group of rooms usually below the ground level and usually under a building, often used for storing fuel, provisions or wines. back
monument VAULT * An underground room or building with an arched roof, often used as a burial chamber. Use wider site type where known. back
monument CASTLE * A fortress and dwelling, usually medieval in origin, and often consisting of a keep, curtain wall and towers etc. back
monument VILLA * A term for a type of house, with varying definitions according to period. Roman villas were high-status and usually associated with a rural estate, whereas Georgian and later period villas were often semi-detached, town houses. back
monument COURTYARD * An uncovered area, surrounded or partially surrounded by buildings. back
monument FIELD * An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock. back
monument SQUARE * An open space or area, usually square in plan, in a town or city, enclosed by residential and/or commercial buildings, frequently containing a garden or laid out with trees. back
monument STEPS * A series of flat-topped structures, usually made of stone or wood, used to facilitate a person's movement from one level to another. back
monument EARTHWORK * A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record