Information for record number MWA9046:
Bishop's Itchington Medieval Settlement

Summary The possible extent of the Medieval settlement at Bishop's Itchington which has been identified from aerial photographs and maps.
What Is It?  
Type: Settlement, Market, Fair
Period: Medieval (1066 AD - 1539 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Bishops Itchington
District: Stratford on Avon, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 38 57
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record

Source Number  

1 The possible extent of Medieval settlement, based on the first edition 6" map, 40SW 1886, and existing HER records.
2 The ridge and furrow plotting shows survival to the west of Bishop's Itchington, and a little to the east, both close to the edge of the settlement area.
3 Market Charter for Wednesdays granted 2nd June 1259 by Henry III to Roger, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, the King's Cousin. To be held at manor Fair Charter granted for vigil feast morrow Peter and Paul (29th June) on 2nd 1259 by Henry III to Roger, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, the King's cousin. To be held at the manor.
4 Listed in Domesday, in Stoneleigh Hundred. Grid ref 3857. 6,12 (Land of Coventry Church) [Bishop's] Itchington. 5 hides. Land for 16 ploughs. In lordship 2; 6 slaves; 30 villagers and 7 smallholders with 13 ploughs. Meadow, 50 acres. Value now £12.
5 The 1886 map shows lots of little lanes and enclosed areas. Domesday indicates a sizeable village, so some shrinkage probably occured. This monument incudes the area of shrunken village, MWA 4928. The 1886 map shows the Manor House to the east of the Church, whereas the present Manor House lies to the west. Lots of ridge and furrow survives to the west, with a small area to the east.
6 An area of Medieval or Post Medieval settlement is visible as earthworks on aerial photographs. The site extends over an area which measures 320m north-south and 320m east-west. The site comprises circa 10 crofts, 7 hollow ways, a probable building platform a possible building and two blocks of associated ridge and furrow. There is a grid pattern of hollow ways on a NNE-SSW orientation with rectangular crofts extending off these at right angles. A possible building is defined by a U shaped bank. A probable building platform is defined by scarps and a ditch, and is located in the south western corner of the settlement. The blocks of ridge and furrow, which are extant on aerial photographs taken in 1999, abut the western and southern sides of the settlement. This site has been mapped from aerial photographs as part of the South East Warwickshire and Cotswolds HLS Target Areas National Mapping Programme.
7 earthworks on the western edge of the current settlement. They also have a separate HER number (MWA 4929). HER monument altered slightly (decreased in size) to match western edge.

Source No: 4
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Date: 06/28/76
Page Number: M
Volume/Sheet: SP4376
Source No: 2
Source Type: Aerial Photograph Transcript
Title: Bishop's Itchington parish
Author/originator: ARI
Date: 1990
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Bishops Itchington P
Source No: 5
Source Type: Desk Top Study
Title: Comments on villages and towns in the Medieval Settlement study.
Author/originator: Hester Hawkes.
Date: 2002/3
Page Number:
Source No: 6
Source Type: Desk Top Study
Title: SE Warwickshire and Cotswolds NMP Project
Author/originator: Russell Priest
Date: 2010-2012
Page Number:
Source No: 3
Source Type: Internet Data
Title: Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs to 1516 (Warwickshire)
Author/originator: Institute of Historical Research (CMH)
Date: 2005
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Warwickshire
Source No: 1
Source Type: Map
Title: 1st edition 6" maps. Medieval settlement evaluation.
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1880s
Page Number:
Source No: 1
Source Type: Map
Title: 40SW 1:10560 1886
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1886
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 40SW
Source No: 7
Source Type: Verbal communication
Title: Pers. Comm.
Author/originator: B Gethin
Date: 2013 onwards
Page Number:
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Word or Phrase
technique Earthwork Earthworks can take the form of banks, ditches and mounds. They are usually created for a specific purpose. A bank, for example, might be the remains of a boundary between two or more fields. Some earthworks may be all that remains of a collapsed building, for example, the grassed-over remains of building foundations.

In the winter, when the sun is lower in the sky than during the other seasons, earthworks have larger shadows. From the air, archaeologists are able to see the patterns of the earthworks more easily. Earthworks can sometimes be confusing when viewed at ground level, but from above, the general plan is much clearer.

Archaeologists often carry out an aerial survey or an earthwork survey to help them understand the lumps and bumps they can see on the ground.
technique Aerial Photograph Aerial photographs are taken during an aerial survey, which involves looking at the ground from above. It is usually easier to see cropmarks and earthworks when they are viewed from above. Aerial photographs help archaeologists to record what they see and to identify new sites. There are two kinds of aerial photographs; oblique and vertical. back
period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 – 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 – 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIII’s (1509 – 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
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period Post Medieval About 1540 AD to 1750 AD (the 16th century AD to the 18th century AD)

The Post Medieval period comes after the medieval period and before the Imperial period.

This period covers the second half of the reign of the Tudors (1485 – 1603), the reign of the Stuarts (1603 – 1702) and the beginning of the reign of the Hannoverians (1714 – 1836).
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monument VILLAGE * A collection of dwelling-houses and other buildings, usually larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town with a simpler organisation and administration than the latter. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument SETTLEMENT * A small concentration of dwellings. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument RIDGE AND FURROW * A series of long, raised ridges separated by ditches used to prepare the ground for arable cultivation. This was a technique, characteristic of the medieval period. back
monument MANOR HOUSE * The principal house of a manor or village. back
monument SHRUNKEN VILLAGE * A settlement where previous house sites are now unoccupied, but often visible as earthworks, crop or soil marks. back
monument MARKET * An open space or covered building in which cattle, goods, etc, are displayed for sale. back
monument CHURCH * A building used for public Christian worship. Use more specific type where known. back
monument FAIR * A site where a periodical gathering of buyers, sellers and entertainers, meet at a time ordained by charter or statute or by ancient custom. back
monument BUILDING PLATFORM * A site where a building once stood as identified by a level area of ground, often compacted or made from man-made materials. Use only where specific function is unknown, otherwise use more specific term. back
monument MANOR * An area of land consisting of the lord's demesne and of lands from whose holders he may exact certain fees, etc. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument HIDE * A shelter, sometimes camouflaged, for the observation of birds and animals at close quarters. back
monument CROFT * An enclosed piece of land adjoining a house. back
monument MEADOW * A piece of grassland, often near a river, permanently covered with grass which is mown for use as hay. back
monument TARGET * Any structure or object, used for the purpose of practice shooting by aerial, seaborne or land mounted weapons. back
monument TOWN * An assemblage of public and private buildings, larger than a village and having more complete and independent local government. back
monument EARTHWORK * A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification. back
monument SCARP * A steep bank or slope. In fortifications, the bank or wall immediately in front of and below the rampart. back
monument HOLLOW WAY * A way, path or road through a cutting. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record