Information for record number MWA2287:
Site of Possible Castle 100m NW of Church, Halford

Summary The possible site of a Medieval motte and bailey castle. The motte is still visible as an earthwork. Documentary evidence mentions a castle at Halford in the Medieval period. The site lies 100m north west of the church.
What Is It?  
Type: Castle, Motte And Bailey, Earthwork
Period: Medieval (1066 AD - 1539 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Halford
District: Stratford on Avon, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 25 45
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Scheduled Monument (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record

Source Number  

1 At Halford Bridge is a small enclosure with a slight mound and a ditch, at one time, no doubt, filled with water by the river. It is known as 'The Castle' and is presumably the site of the first manor house or 'Castle'. In the 1332 Subsidy Roll there are the names in Halford of Robert de Castro and Johne atte Castel, men who lived near to the place then known as 'Castle'. It is marked on the OS 1:2500 map but is not called a Castle. The old people in the village say they have been told that the pigeon-cote once stood in the Castle enclosure
2 The mound is rectangular and was probably cut from the adjacent river terrace, by which it is overlooked. There are no traces of foundations on the mound and no associated enclosure or ditch were identified.
3 A motte standing about 4.3m high and with a diameter of 27.5m, it has a bailey to the N 73m long and 36.6m wide. It stands on a bend of the Stour and in the grounds of Halford Manor.
4 Scheduling information.
5 This site was Re-Scheduled in March 1998, the number was changed from SAM Warw 170 to Monument No 21668. There is no visble trace of the ditch but it will survive beneath the ground and is therefore included in the protected area. There are references to a Castle at Halford in an early 14th century Subsidy Roll and the motte Castle is believed to be the predecessor to the present manor house situated some 260m to the north east.
6 Correspondence about proposed works within the scheduled area.
7 Photocopies of maps showing the Castle site.
8 The remains of the motte were viewed and mapped on historical aerial photographs as part of the SE Warwickshire and Cotswolds HLS NMP project. The mound appears to be more circular (as apposed to being 'rectangular') on the aerial photographs taken in 1946 and 1947, which does differ from its form on later aerial photographs. Sometime after 1947 the tennis court was constructed which may have 'squared' off the eastern side of the mound. Although a substantial ditch cannot be seen surrounding the motte there is a faint hint of one on the aerial photographs. The aerial photographs also show a small scooped area on top of the mound which may represent buildings remains of the 'Castle' or the site of the possible pigeon-cote referred to in

Source No: 6
Source Type: Correspondence
Title: Halford Motte and Bailey Castle
Author/originator: EH
Date: 1989-90
Page Number:
Source No: 8
Source Type: Desk Top Study
Title: SE Warwickshire and Cotswolds NMP Project
Author/originator: Russell Priest
Date: 2010-2012
Page Number:
Source No: 7
Source Type: Map
Title: Halford
Page Number:
Source No: 2
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: OS Card 25NE6
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1968
Page Number:
Source No: 1
Source Type: Serial
Title: TBAS vol 67
Author/originator: Chatwin P B
Date: 1947
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 67
Source No: 3
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Motte and Bailey at Halford, 150 yds (140m) NW of St Mary's Church.
Author/originator: DoE
Page Number:
Source No: 4
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: SAM List 1983
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1983
Page Number:
Source No: 5
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Motte Castle, 110m north west of St Mary's Church
Author/originator: EH
Date: 1998
Page Number:
There are no images associated with this record.  
back to top


Word or Phrase
none Scheduled Monument Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAMs) are those archaeological sites which are legally recognised as being of national importance. They can range in date from prehistoric times to the Cold War period. They can take many different forms, including disused buildings or sites surviving as earthworks or cropmarks.

SAMs are protected by law from unlicensed disturbance and metal detecting. Written consent from the Secretary of State must be obtained before any sort of work can begin, including archaeological work such as geophysical survey or archaeological excavation. There are nearly 200 SAMs in Warwickshire.
source OS Card Ordnance Survey Record Card. Before the 1970s the Ordnance Survey (OS) were responsible for recording archaeological monuments during mapping exercises. This helped the Ordnance Survey to decide which monuments to publish on maps. During these exercises the details of the monuments were written down on record cards. Copies of some of the cards are kept at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. The responsibility for recording archaeological monuments later passed to the Royal Commission on Ancient and Historic Monuments. back
source SAM List Scheduled Ancient Monument List. A list or schedule of archaelogical and historic monuments that are considered to be of national importance. The list contains a detailed description of each Scheduled Ancient Monument (SAM) and a map showing their location and extent. By being placed on the schedule, SAMs are protected by law from any unauthorised distrubance. The list has been compiled and is maintained by English Heritage. It is updated periodically. back
source TBAS Transactions of the Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeological Society is a journal produced by the society annually. It contains articles about archaeological field work that has taken place in Birmingham and Warwickshire in previous years. Copies of the journal are kept by the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique Documentary Evidence Documentary evidence is another name for written records. The first written records in Britain date back to the Roman period. Documentary evidence can take many different forms, including maps, charters, letters and written accounts. When archaeologists are researching a site, they often start by looking at documentary evidence to see if there are clues that will help them understand what they might find. Documentary evidence can help archaeologists understand sites that are discovered during an excavation, field survey or aerial survey. back
technique Earthwork Earthworks can take the form of banks, ditches and mounds. They are usually created for a specific purpose. A bank, for example, might be the remains of a boundary between two or more fields. Some earthworks may be all that remains of a collapsed building, for example, the grassed-over remains of building foundations.

In the winter, when the sun is lower in the sky than during the other seasons, earthworks have larger shadows. From the air, archaeologists are able to see the patterns of the earthworks more easily. Earthworks can sometimes be confusing when viewed at ground level, but from above, the general plan is much clearer.

Archaeologists often carry out an aerial survey or an earthwork survey to help them understand the lumps and bumps they can see on the ground.
technique Aerial Photograph Aerial photographs are taken during an aerial survey, which involves looking at the ground from above. It is usually easier to see cropmarks and earthworks when they are viewed from above. Aerial photographs help archaeologists to record what they see and to identify new sites. There are two kinds of aerial photographs; oblique and vertical. back
period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 – 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 – 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIII’s (1509 – 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
more ->
monument VILLAGE * A collection of dwelling-houses and other buildings, usually larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town with a simpler organisation and administration than the latter. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument MANOR HOUSE * The principal house of a manor or village. back
monument CHURCH * A building used for public Christian worship. Use more specific type where known. back
monument CASTLE * A fortress and dwelling, usually medieval in origin, and often consisting of a keep, curtain wall and towers etc. back
monument TENNIS COURT * A prepared area, traditionally grass, where tennis is played. back
monument BRIDGE * A structure of wood, stone, iron, brick or concrete, etc, with one or more intervals under it to span a river or other space. Use specific type where known. back
monument MOTTE AND BAILEY * An early form of castle consisting of a flat-top steep-sided earthen mound, supporting a wooden tower, and a bailey. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument MANOR * An area of land consisting of the lord's demesne and of lands from whose holders he may exact certain fees, etc. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument BAILEY * The courtyard of a castle, ie. the area enclosed by the rampart or curtain. Use with wider site type where known. back
monument MOUND * A natural or artificial elevation of earth or stones, such as the earth heaped upon a grave. Use more specific type where known. back
monument EARTHWORK * A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification. back
monument WORKS * Usually a complex of buildings for the processing of raw materials. Use specific type where known. back
monument MOTTE * An artificial steep-sided earthen mound on, or in, which is set the principal tower of a castle. back
monument TERRACE * A row of houses attached to and adjoining one another and planned and built as one unit. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record