Information for record number MWA3042:
Flecknoe Shrunken Medieval Settlement

Summary The site of a Medieval shrunken settlement, with four areas of desertion. House platforms, hollow ways, trackways, and a pond are visible as earthworks and on aerial photographs. It is situated to the west of Flecknoe.
What Is It?  
Type: Shrunken Village, House Platform, Hollow Way, Pond, Trackway, Ditch, Wall
Period: Medieval (1066 AD - 1539 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Wolfhampcote
District: Rugby, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 51 63
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Scheduled Monument (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record
Picture(s) attached


Source Number  

1 Listed by Dugdale as the largest and chief village of Wolfhampcote. Dugdale also mentions a chapel (PRN 6372).
2 The area behind Flecknoe Farm at SP5163 contains house platforms, hollow ways, a pond and trackways. At SP5163 possible hollow ways, field boundaries and pits - possibly the result of quarrying - can be distinguished. Both of these are pastureland and the earthworks are still very evident.
4 Aerial photographs indicate that Flecknoe is a shrunken village. Four areas of desertion are evident within and on the edge of the modern settlement. Possible hollow ways, croft boundaries and building foundations are evident. In addition to the two areas recorded in reference
2 a third area is evident E of Flecknoe Farm at SP5163 and a fourth area at SP5163.
5 Another series of air photographs have recently been taken showing the surviving medieval settlement earthworks.
6 An area of the village adjacent to Manor Farm was evaluated in June 1992 in advance of a housing development (PRN 6406).
7 Watching brief during groundworks for a double garage revealed no archaeological features or finds.
8 Observation of the laying of pipe trenches for a new sewerage system in Flecknoe revealed medieval activity in the scheduled area behind Vicarage Road. A limestone surface, possibly associated with a building and a section of wall associated with a late medieval building were found. Two boundary ditches, of 16th century date, and a number of ditches were also identified.
9 English Heritage scheduling revised August 4th 2003. Five areas identified. The monument includes buried and earthwork remains of the medieval settlement. The visible remains include the house sites and enclosures and associated hollow ways, field boundaries and enclosures as well as a sample of surviving ridge and furrow. They are well preserved. Evidence from a series of small excavations has found evidence of occupation levels from the Roman, Anglo Saxon, and medieval periods. The low lying water logged area to the northwest should contain preserved organic material.
10 A visit was made to the village following reports of damage being made to the medieval fishpond. A photographic record of the visit was taken, but the exact location of the alleged damage was unknown, and access to land was restricted. Nothing untoward however was observed.
11 Original schedule from 2000.
12 An earthwork survey was carried out on the fields at Firs Farm in 2010 by Northamptonshire Archaeology. The survey identified three house platforms (crofts) with associated lower areas which may be yards (tofts). These crofts and tofts are bounded to the west and east by holloways and another holloway runs east-west between two of the tofts.

Source No: 3
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Author/originator: J Pickering
Date: 1962
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: SP4489 C/D/E/X
Source No: 5
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Title: SP5163
Author/originator: JCH & NJP
Date: 1992
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: SP5163 W-AV
Source No: 12
Source Type: Archaeological Report
Title: Archaeological Earthwork Survey on land north of Firs Farm, Flecknoe
Author/originator: Butler A
Date: 2010
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Report 10/201
Source No: 1
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Antiquities of Warwickshire
Author/originator: Dugdale W
Date: 1730
Page Number: 1056
Source No: 6
Source Type: Evaluation Report
Title: Plot adjacent to Manor Farmhouse, Flecknoe, Wolfhamcote, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Oxford Archaeological Unit
Date: 1992
Page Number:
Source No: 7
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Paddock Rise, Flecknoe, Wolfhamcote
Author/originator: Newman, Richard
Date: 2001
Page Number:
Source No: 8
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Archaeological observation and recording of STW Sewerage Scheme, Flecknoe
Author/originator: Coutts C & Thompson P
Date: 2002
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Report No 0204
Source No: 11
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Medieval settlement remains at Flecknoe
Author/originator: EH
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Source No: 9
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Medieval settlement remains at Flecknoe
Author/originator: English Heritage
Date: 2003
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: SAM 30051
Source No: 2
Source Type: Unpublished document
Title: SMR Card
Author/originator: Pehrson B
Date: 1983
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: PRN 3081
Source No: 4
Source Type: Verbal communication
Title: R.C. Hingley personal comments
Author/originator: R C Hingley
Page Number:
The shrunken Medieval village of Flecknoe
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 1992
Click here for larger image  
The shrunken Medieval village at Flecknoe, Wolfhampcote
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 1992
Click here for larger image  
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Word or Phrase
none Scheduled Monument Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAMs) are those archaeological sites which are legally recognised as being of national importance. They can range in date from prehistoric times to the Cold War period. They can take many different forms, including disused buildings or sites surviving as earthworks or cropmarks.

SAMs are protected by law from unlicensed disturbance and metal detecting. Written consent from the Secretary of State must be obtained before any sort of work can begin, including archaeological work such as geophysical survey or archaeological excavation. There are nearly 200 SAMs in Warwickshire.
source SMR Card Sites and Monuments Record Card. The Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record began to be developed during the 1970s. The details of individual archaeological sites and findspots were written on record cards. These record cards were used until the 1990s, when their details were entered on to a computerised system. The record cards are still kept at the office of the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique Earthwork Survey The measuring and plotting of earthworks, such as banks, ditches, mounds and areas of ridge and furrow cultivation, to create a plan of what exists on the ground. Earthwork surveys are sometimes also called topographical surveys. back
technique Earthwork Earthworks can take the form of banks, ditches and mounds. They are usually created for a specific purpose. A bank, for example, might be the remains of a boundary between two or more fields. Some earthworks may be all that remains of a collapsed building, for example, the grassed-over remains of building foundations.

In the winter, when the sun is lower in the sky than during the other seasons, earthworks have larger shadows. From the air, archaeologists are able to see the patterns of the earthworks more easily. Earthworks can sometimes be confusing when viewed at ground level, but from above, the general plan is much clearer.

Archaeologists often carry out an aerial survey or an earthwork survey to help them understand the lumps and bumps they can see on the ground.
technique excavation Archaeologists excavate sites so that they can find information and recover archaeological materials before they are destroyed by erosion, construction or changes in land-use.

Depending on how complicated and widespread the archaeological deposits are, excavation can be done by hand or with heavy machinery. Archaeologists may excavate a site in a number of ways; either by open area excavation, by digging a test pit or a trial trench.
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technique Aerial Photograph Aerial photographs are taken during an aerial survey, which involves looking at the ground from above. It is usually easier to see cropmarks and earthworks when they are viewed from above. Aerial photographs help archaeologists to record what they see and to identify new sites. There are two kinds of aerial photographs; oblique and vertical. back
period Modern The Modern Period, about 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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technique Organic material Material that once used to be part of a living animal or plant, such as wood or leather. These materials decay unless they are in waterlogged, very dry or freezing conditions. Because of this, archaeologists do not often find these materials during excavations. back
period Roman About 43 AD to 409 AD (the 1st century AD to the 5th century AD)

The Roman period comes after the Iron Age and before the Saxon period.

The Roman period in Britain began in 43 AD when a Roman commander called Aulus Plautius invaded the south coast, near Kent. There were a series of skirmishes with the native Britons, who were defeated. In the months that followed, more Roman troops arrived and slowly moved westwards and northwards.
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period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 – 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 – 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIII’s (1509 – 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
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period modern About 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
more ->
monument YARD * A paved area, generally found at the back of a house. back
monument PADDOCK * An enclosed field for horses. back
monument HOUSE * A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known. back
monument VILLAGE * A collection of dwelling-houses and other buildings, usually larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town with a simpler organisation and administration than the latter. back
monument MANOR FARM * A farm on the estate of a manor. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURE * Use only for features assumed to be archaeological but which cannot be identified more precisely without further investigation .Use more specific term where known back
monument FISHPOND * A pond used for the rearing, breeding, sorting and storing of fish. back
monument SETTLEMENT * A small concentration of dwellings. back
monument TOFT * The place where a house stood or had once stood, often adjoining a garth or croft. back
monument VICARAGE * The residence of a vicar, parson or rector. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument RIDGE AND FURROW * A series of long, raised ridges separated by ditches used to prepare the ground for arable cultivation. This was a technique, characteristic of the medieval period. back
monument SHRUNKEN VILLAGE * A settlement where previous house sites are now unoccupied, but often visible as earthworks, crop or soil marks. back
monument POND * A body of still water often artificially formed for a specific purpose. Use specifc type where known. back
monument FARMHOUSE * The main dwelling-house of a farm, it can be either detached from or attached to the working buildings. back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
monument BOUNDARY DITCH * A ditch that indicates the limit of an area or a piece of land. back
monument PIT * A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known. back
monument WELL * A shaft or pit dug in the ground over a supply of spring-water. back
monument FIELD * An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument MANOR * An area of land consisting of the lord's demesne and of lands from whose holders he may exact certain fees, etc. back
monument TRENCH * An excavation used as a means of concealment, protection or both. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument CHAPEL * A freestanding building, or a room or recess serving as a place of Christian worship in a church or other building. Use more specific type where known. back
monument CROFT * An enclosed piece of land adjoining a house. back
monument HOUSE PLATFORM * An area of ground on which a house is built. A platform is often the sole surviving evidence for a house. back
monument TRACKWAY * A pathway, not necessarily designed as such, beaten down by the feet of travellers. back
monument FARM * A tract of land, often including a farmhouse and ancillary buildings, used for the purpose of cultivation and the rearing of livestock, etc. Use more specific type where known. back
monument WALL * An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known. back
monument GARAGE * Use only for buildings which house motor vehicles. Includes garages for vehicle repair. For petrol sales use PETROL STATION. back
monument EARTHWORK * A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification. back
monument HOLLOW WAY * A way, path or road through a cutting. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record