Information for record number MWA3456:
Settlement enclosure/ Kings Newnham Site A

Summary The site of a settlement, possibly of Iron Age or Romano-British date. It is visible as a series of cropmarks on aerial photographs. The settlement is situated 800m north west of Newnham Hall.
What Is It?  
Type: Settlement, Enclosure, Linear Feature, Pit Cluster
Period: Early Iron Age - Romano-British (800 BC - 409 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Kings Newnham
District: Rugby, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 44 77
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record
Picture(s) attached


Source Number  

1 Undated settlement, consisting of a subrectangular enclosure and linear features, shows on aerial photographs.
2 In advance of the laying of a gas pipeline, a 20m wide section of the site was archaeologically investigated. The excavation located the enclosure ditch of a small sub-rectangular enclosure with a southern entrance and extension on the east side. The west side had been truncated by Post Medieval quarrying, which had removed up to 50% of the original extent of the enclosure at that point. Six small pits were located in the interior, each containing heat-cracked pebbles. Only the largest pit produced evidence of burning, together with a quantity of daub and burnt clay. No other features had survived within this section of the enclosure and only one small pit and two small postholes were located outside it.
3 Interim report of the above excavation. The site is provisionally interpreted as a small agricultural settlement dated by form to the Iron Age, though no dating evidence was recovered. A former stream course was revealed by excavation, and is thought to have influenced the location of the settlement. Two phases of construction of this particular enclosure are outlined, with its function in each phase apparently being to enclose domestic storage pits. Both phases were cut by a later ditch containing Iron Age pottery. Later disturbance has been caused by localised quarrying (the field is named "Sandpit Close" on a map of 1720), by repeated ploughing and by a previous pipeline through the site. Evidence of quarrying and the previous pipeline shows on the aerial photographs.
4 1999 pipeline excavations to the north of the cropmark revealed a few short lengths of gully which were not directly datable but their alignemnt with the cropmark enclosure to the south suggests that they are likely to belong to the same phase.
5 1999 pipeline excavations revealed a pit cluster probably relating to cropmark enclosure. The majority of the pits however remain undated although the presence of iron hammerscale and slag suggests that many of them could be Iron Age or more likely later. Two groups of pits may have held posts, but in no case were post-pipes evident and no structures could be recognised. Two undated gullies were also recovered at the northern end of the site.
6 A subrectangular enclosure and linear feature showing on aerial photographs were mapped as part of the English Heritage National Mapping Project.

Source No: 6
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Title: SP4477 Frame 02
Author/originator: J Pickering
Date: 12/7/1975
Page Number: Frame 02
Volume/Sheet: SP4477
Source No: 1
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Author/originator: J Pickering
Date: 1962
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: SP4489 C/D/E/X
Source No: 5
Source Type: Archaeological Report
Title: Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon excavations on the Transco Churchover to Newbold Pacey gas pipeline in 1999
Author/originator: S C Palmer
Date: 2006
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 0611
Source No: 3
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Rugby to Ansty pipeline: Preliminary Archaeological Report
Author/originator: Palmer, S
Date: 1990
Page Number:
Source No: 4
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Archaeological excavation Churchover/Newbold Pacey pipeline, Interim report
Author/originator: Stuart Palmer
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Source No: 2
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 33
Author/originator: Palmer S C
Date: 1990
Page Number: 87
Volume/Sheet: 33
A map showing settlement cropmarks, King's Newnham
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 1983
Click here for larger image  
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Word or Phrase
source WMA West Midlands Archaeology. This publication contains a short description for each of the sites where archaeological work has taken place in the previous year. It covers Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. Some of these descriptions include photographs, plans and drawings of the sites and/or the finds that have been discovered. The publication is produced by the Council For British Archaeology (CBA) West Midlands and is published annually. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique Cropmark Cropmarks appear as light and dark marks in growing and ripening crops. These marks relate to differences in the soil below. For example, parched lines of grass may indicate stone walls. Crops that grow over stone features often ripen more quickly and are shorter than the surrounding crop. This is because there is less moisture in the soil where the wall lies.

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technique excavation Archaeologists excavate sites so that they can find information and recover archaeological materials before they are destroyed by erosion, construction or changes in land-use.

Depending on how complicated and widespread the archaeological deposits are, excavation can be done by hand or with heavy machinery. Archaeologists may excavate a site in a number of ways; either by open area excavation, by digging a test pit or a trial trench.
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technique Aerial Photograph Aerial photographs are taken during an aerial survey, which involves looking at the ground from above. It is usually easier to see cropmarks and earthworks when they are viewed from above. Aerial photographs help archaeologists to record what they see and to identify new sites. There are two kinds of aerial photographs; oblique and vertical. back
period Neolithic About 4000 BC to 2351 BC

The word ‘Neolithic’ means ‘New Stone Age’. Archaeologists split up the Neolithic period into three phases; early, middle and late. The Neolithic period comes after the Mesolithic period and before the Bronze Age.

People in the Neolithic period hunted and gathered food as their ancestors had but they were also began to farm. They kept animals and grew crops. This meant that they were able to settle more permanently in one location instead of constantly moving from place to place to look for food.
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period Bronze Age About 2500 BC to 700 BC

The Bronze Age comes after the Neolithic period and before the Iron Age.

The day to day life of people in the Bronze Age probably changed little from how their ancestors had lived during the Neolithic period. They still lived in farmsteads, growing crops and rearing animals.

During the Bronze Age people discovered how to use bronze, an alloy of tin and copper (hence the name that has given to this era). They used it to make their tools and other objects, although they continued to use flint and a range of organic materials as well. A range of bronze axes, palstaves and spears has been found in Warwickshire.
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period Iron Age About 800 BC to 43 AD

The Iron Age comes after the Bronze Age and before the Roman period. It is a time when people developed the skills and knowledge to work and use iron, hence the name ‘Iron Age’ which is given to this period. Iron is a much tougher and more durable metal than bronze but it also requires more skill to make objects from it. People continued to use bronze during this period.
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period Post Medieval About 1540 AD to 1750 AD (the 16th century AD to the 18th century AD)

The Post Medieval period comes after the medieval period and before the Imperial period.

This period covers the second half of the reign of the Tudors (1485 – 1603), the reign of the Stuarts (1603 – 1702) and the beginning of the reign of the Hannoverians (1714 – 1836).
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monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument SETTLEMENT * A small concentration of dwellings. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE * A rectangular shaped area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier. back
monument GULLY * A deep gutter, drain or sink. back
monument PIT CLUSTER * A spatially discrete group of pits usually containing artefactual material with little or no accompanying evidence for structural features. back
monument PIT * A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known. back
monument LINEAR FEATURE * A length of straight, curved or angled earthwork or cropmark of uncertain date or function. back
monument FIELD * An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument STRUCTURE * A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. If known, use more specific type. back
monument PIPELINE * A conduit or pipes, used primarily for conveying petroleum from oil wells to a refinery, or for supplying water to a town or district, etc. back
monument STORAGE PIT * A pit dug in the ground used to store meat, grain and other foodstuffs. A common feature of Iron Age farms. back
monument STREAM * A natural flow or current of water issuing from a source. back
monument SUBRECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE * A monument consisting of an area enclosed by a ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier, where the barrier follows an almost rectangular course. back
monument DOMESTIC * This is the top term for the class. See DOMESTIC Class List for narrow terms. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record