Information for record number MWA410:
Packington Park, Great Packington

Summary An early 17th century park remodelled in the mid 18th century after a scheme by Lancelot Brown, with late 18th and early 19th century picturesque elements.
What Is It?  
Type: Deer Park, Formal Garden, Kitchen Garden, Lake, Landscape Park, Drive, Gate Lodge, Cascade, Garden Terrace, Parterre, Park Pale, Wild Garden
Period: Imperial - Modern (1751 AD - 2050 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Great Packington
District: North Warwickshire, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 22 84
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Registered Park or Garden (Grade: II*)
Sites & Monuments Record

Source Number  

1 Imparked by Sir Clement Fisher in the reign of James I 'out of the outwood and some other grounds here' (Dugdale). It is at present a park of 500 acres, with a herd of 300 fallow deer.
2 Listed as a deer park in a work by Whitaker. It formed part of the Forest of Arden and contained some very old oaks. About 270 hectares. Imparked at time of James 1 (1603-25). There are still deer in the park, but there is no surviving indication of a park pale.
8 Packington Hall 275 heactre site comprises 12 heactres of pleasure grounds and walled gardens, and 263 heactres of parkland. A stream running through this valley has been dammed to form the Great Pool to the east, and Hall Pool to the west. Hall Pool discharges into the River Blythe which flows from south to north through a wide shallow valley immediately to the west of the site. ENTRANCES AND APPROACHES Packington Hall is approached from the Birmingham Road to the south. The entrance is set back from the Road, and flanked by quadrant planting set behind simple fences. A pair of rendered, rusticated, rectangular-section piers support a pair of wrought-iron gates dated 1935, and are flanked by a pair of late 18th century single-storey, square-plan stuccoed pavilions. Immediately to the north-east of the entrance and within the park stands a mid 20th century two-storey lodge. The tarmac drive extends 650m north through the park, dropping to cross the eastern end of Hall Pool on a mid 18th century bridge. Some 50m north of the bridge, the south drive reaches a junction and sweeps west for 200m through the park to approach the gravelled carriage turn below the east façade of the Hall. A further drive extends north from the junction north of the bridge for 200m, enclosing the east side of an area of level grass east of the Hall. Sweeping west and south-west for 200m, this drive approaches the mid 18th century stable block north of the Hall from the north-east. Further drives approach from the north, east, west, and south-east. The north drive enters the site from a minor lane south-east of Little Packington bridge 1km north-north-west of the Hall. The entrance is marked by a pair of square-section brick piers which support a pair of massive carved stone ball finials. The piers are flanked by stone-coped brick wing walls, while to the south-west of the entrance a late 18th or early 19th century two-storey lodge with an ornamental porch on the east façade stands within the park. The north drive leads 900m south-south-east across the park, the drive turns south-south-west for 100m to approach the stables and farm buildings from the north-east. The east drive enters the site from Maxstoke Lane, a pair of mid 19th century Tudor-gothic gabled brick cottages known as East lodge stand on the east side of Maxstoke Lane, opposite the entrance to the site. The east drive follows an approximately level and straight course across the park. The east drive joins the north and south drives immediately to the north-east of the stables. The south-east drive is today a track which approaches the site from the Birmingham Road to the south-east. Some 300m north-west of the Birmingham Road the drive passes a late 18th century monument. . The Monument is partly enclosed by 19th century spiked railings and stands immediately north-west of a picturesquely gnarled veteran oak. The south-east drive enters the park at Beech or East lodge 570m south-east of the Hall. The late 18th century lodge comprises a square, two-storey house. Beyond East lodge, the south-east drive extends north for 400m, crossing the dam at the west end of the Great Pool and sweeping north-west across the park for 300m before joining the south drive 270m north-east of the Hall. The west drive is today an agricultural track which crosses Long Meadow to the west of the pleasure grounds. It enters the site 450m north-west of the Hall and passes through Garden Spinney to the north of the pleasure grounds and sweeps south-east to reach the farm and service buildings north of the stables and east of the kitchen garden. PRINCIPAL building Packington Hall stands on a level site to the north of the mid 18th century Hall Pool in the south-west quarter of the site. GardenS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS The informal pleasure grounds lie principally to the south and west of the Hall. The south side of the east terrace or carriage turn is closed by a low stone wall surmounted by mid 18th century spear-headed railings. These flank a pair of similar, centrally placed gates supported by a pair of rectangular stone piers. The gates lead to the gravelled south terrace which extends below the south façade; the terrace is also approached by stone steps from the Hall. A flight of centrally placed, wide, stone-flagged steps descends from the upper gravelled terrace to a lower grass terrace, similarly retained by a stone wall and planted to the north with herbaceous borders. A further axial flight of stone steps descends to a lawn which slopes gently down to Hall Pool. This lawn bears traces of a mid 19th century formal parterre which was removed in the early 20th century. Some 100m south-east of the Hall, a mid 19th century single-span footbridge crosses a low cascade at the east end of Hall Pool to reach an area of mown grass and specimen trees on the south bank of the lake. This area of pleasure ground to the south of Hall Pool is bounded to the east by a traditional split-timber park pale, and to the south by a sunk fence; to the west the area is bounded by a mixed plantation, The Wilderness. The upper, gravelled south terrace returns below the west façade of the Hall. The central section of the terrace, below the portico, is recessed where a wide double flight of stone-flagged steps descends to the pleasure grounds. The steps are flanked by balustrades which return at the lower level to the south-west and north-west. To the north and south of the central steps the upper terrace is ornamented by a pair of geometric box- and stone-edged parterres planted with roses. At the north end of the terrace a wide flight of stone steps ascends to the site of the west range of the mid 19th century conservatory. The site of this structure is now occupied by a late 20th century swimming pool. Hall Pool extends 850m west-north-west from the footbridge south-east of the Hall. It was formed from an existing mill Pool and a chain of ornamental fishponds separated by a series of cascades; remains of these cascades survive, submerged in the lake. To the north-west of the Hall a gravel walk leads west and north-west through the pleasure grounds. The south-west-facing slope above this walk is bounded to the north by the kitchen garden wall, while to the east it is enclosed by the wall of the service courts and a 19th century single-storey cottage with an ornamentally tiled west façade; to the north-west a hard tennis court is terraced into the slope. This area is today lawn. In the late 18th century it was laid out as a flower garden which incorporated a small Doric temple designed by the fourth Earl; this structure does not survive. The late 18th century pleasure grounds replaced a mid 18th century walk. This walk, led north-west from the Hall for 350m to 'the Scots Fir clump', a square plantation whose outline survives within the pleasure grounds. Earthworks in this area including two pronounced ditches and an approximately circular depression 320m north-west of the Hall are relics of a system of culverts and leats used to flood Long Meadow. Some 200m north-west of the Hall the gravel walk becomes a grass path which leads 200m north-west parallel to the west wall of the kitchen garden through an area of standard apple trees, to reach a single-storey cottage of late 18th or early 19th century appearance madjacent to the west drive, which here forms the northern boundary of the pleasure grounds. The pleasure grounds are separated from Long Meadow to the south-west by a late 20th century timber fence; the boundary has been extended 15m west since 1904. park The park lies to the south-west, south, north, and east of the Hall, and today (2000) remains pasture. The park to the east of the Hall retains a deer herd. A late C20 golf course has been developed in the north-east corner of the park, adjacent to Maxstoke Lane, an area which retains many mature oaks. The south and south-west park lies to the south of Hall Pool, and is separated from the east park by a deer fence which extends from the footbridge south-east of the Hall to the south lodge. This feature may relate to the early 18th century formal landscape around the late 17th century mansion. To the south-south-west of the Hall, Little Dayhouse wood extends parallel to the south avenue to the Birmingham Road; the mid 18th century kennels stand in this plantation 600m south of the Hall. The park is enclosed to the east by a mixed plantation, The Wilderness, and to the west and south-west by a further mixed plantation, mill Shrubbery. An 18th century carriage drive leads from the south-west park through mill Shrubbery, passing the remains of Packington mill 600m south-west of the Hall. The east park is generally level and characterised by scattered mature oaks. To the north-east the ground falls towards park Pool, an approximately square Pool retained to the west by an earth dam. A shallow valley extends north-west from park Pool towards North lodge, and enclosures north-east of North lodge, today in arable cultivation. To the east of park Pool, and 1.1km north-east of the Hall, the late 17th century Packington Old Hall stands in Gardens enclosed by late 17th century brick walls. Some 20m south-west of the Old Hall the Gardens are bounded by the late 18th century brick Venison house; to the north-west of the Old Hall a late 17th century dovecote, rectangular on plan, stands adjacent to late 17th century stables. Approximately 130m south-east of the Old Hall the Earthwork remains of a medieval moated enclosure survive. A Pool 20m south-east of the Old Hall feeds the park Pool to the west. To the south-east of Packington Hall the outflow from the Great Pool is canalised and retained by a cascade associated with the footbridge 100m south-east of the Hall. The Great Pool, known in the late 18th century as the 'New River', was created in the mid 18th century. Some 400m south-east of the Hall the Pool is retained to the west by a high earth dam. The Pool, of early 17th century origin extends 800m east, with a small island towards the eastern end. The east end was developed as a decoy, which was remodelled as three decoys in the late 18th century by Wedge. At the same time the 17th century rectangular Pool was remodelled in a more naturalistic form. The outflow at the south-west end of the dam of the Great Pool, known as the Lion's Mouth, comprises a mid 18th century brick-lined tunnel with a rusticated stone opening. To the north of this plantation, 290m south-east of the Hall, a spring, fed through a lion-mask spout, is enclosed within a mid 18th century stone structure which comprises a round-headed opening to the west set beneath a pediment. The parish church of St James stands in the park 750m east-north-east of the Hall within a churchyard enclosed by late 18th century rubble-stone walls. Land to the west and south of the church and north of church wood, a mixed plantation on the north bank of the Great Pool, is today in arable cultivation. kitchen garden Lying 130m north-west of the Hall and immediately to the north of the pleasure grounds, the kitchen garden is enclosed by 18th century brick walls 3m high and surmounted by stone copings. A panelled timber door is set in the south wall; there are further doors in the west wall. The Garden is approximately rectangular on plan and is divided into three sections by lateral walls running from east to west. The two southern sections are of approximately equal area and are laid to grass with remains of late 19th or early 20th century timber-framed glasshouses surviving in the central section. The larger northern compartment is today planted as an orchard with standard apple trees.
4 Historical article on the development of Packington. The estate belonged to Kenilworth Priory in medieval period. It was acquired at the Dissolution by the former tenant (John Fisher),who is said (by Dugdale) to have built the first house, probably on or near the site of the present Packington Hall. The estate was emparked by his son at the beginning of the 17th century, and the monastic estate settlement may have been removed as early as this. The lake now known as the Great Pool was established in the first half of the 17th century but lay outside the then extent of the park. In this period there were probably fishponds on the site of the later Hall Pool, for there are references to Parliamentarian troops plundering fish during the Civil War. The park was extended in the second half of the 17th century, and the house now known as the Old Hall repaired, refaced and extended, possibly to act as a temporary home for the family. A new house, which forms the core of the present Packington Hall, was completed circa 1693. There is little evidence for the appearance of its late 17th century and early 18th century Gardens, but they are likely to have been formal and to have made extensive use of water. The southern part of the park was transformed in the mid 18th century after the designs of Capability Brown, who conceived the Hall Pool. At the same time the Hall was rebuilt around the late 17th century core. Later in the 18th century the Great Pool was reshaped, the Holyhead Road diverted away from the house, and the old church rebuilt. A pleasure garden was laid out north of the Hall Pool at the end of the 18th century and hothouses, greenhouses and terraces had all been constructed by 1820. At this date the park was extended again, obliterating Dyalls Green: this was the last major alteration to the Packington landscape.
7Lovie reported parkland with Pools/lakes, drives, plantations, terraces, pleasure grounds and kitchen garden. park by 1625, created from old Forest of Arden. Designed by Lancelot "Capability" Brown, 1751, and pleasure grounds developed late C18th by 4th Earl of Aylesford.
8 Portable Antiquities Scheme find provenance information: Methods of discovery: Metal detector

Source No: 5
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Warwickshire Register Review Data Tables (North Warwickshire, Nuneaton & Bedworth, Rugby)
Author/originator: Lovie, Jonathan
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 6
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Warwickshire Register Review Report & Recommendations
Author/originator: Lovie, Jonathan
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 7
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Warwickshire Register Review Report & Recommendations
Author/originator: Lovie, Jonathan
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 4
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Warwickshire History
Author/originator: Tyack, G
Date: 1998
Page Number: 130-144
Volume/Sheet: Vol X, No 4
Source No: 1
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Deer Parks
Author/originator: Shirley E
Date: 1867
Page Number: 156-7
Source No: 3
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Register of Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England
Author/originator: English Heritage
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Source No:
Source Type: Internet Data
Title: Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) Database
Author/originator: British Museum
Page Number:
Source No: 8
Source Type: Statuatory List
Title: National Heritage List for England
Author/originator: Historic England
Page Number:
Source No: 2
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: OS Card 29NE1
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1967
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 29NE1
There are no images associated with this record.  
back to top


Word or Phrase
none Registered Park or Garden Parks and gardens that are considered to be of historic importance are placed on a register. The register comprises a variety of town gardens, public parks and country estates. The main purpose of the register is to help ensure that the features and qualities that make the parks and gardens special are safeguarded if changes are being considered which could affect them.

The gardens on the register are divided into three grades in order to give some guidance about their significance, in a similar way to Listed Buildings. The majority of parks and gardens on the Register are of sufficient interest as to be designated as grade II. Some, however, are recognised as being of exceptional historic interest and are awarded a star giving them grade II* status. A small number are of international importance, and are classified as grade I.
source OS Card Ordnance Survey Record Card. Before the 1970s the Ordnance Survey (OS) were responsible for recording archaeological monuments during mapping exercises. This helped the Ordnance Survey to decide which monuments to publish on maps. During these exercises the details of the monuments were written down on record cards. Copies of some of the cards are kept at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. The responsibility for recording archaeological monuments later passed to the Royal Commission on Ancient and Historic Monuments. back
technique Earthwork Earthworks can take the form of banks, ditches and mounds. They are usually created for a specific purpose. A bank, for example, might be the remains of a boundary between two or more fields. Some earthworks may be all that remains of a collapsed building, for example, the grassed-over remains of building foundations.

In the winter, when the sun is lower in the sky than during the other seasons, earthworks have larger shadows. From the air, archaeologists are able to see the patterns of the earthworks more easily. Earthworks can sometimes be confusing when viewed at ground level, but from above, the general plan is much clearer.

Archaeologists often carry out an aerial survey or an earthwork survey to help them understand the lumps and bumps they can see on the ground.
period Modern The Modern Period, about 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
more ->
period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 – 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 – 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIII’s (1509 – 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
more ->
period Imperial 1751 AD to 1914 AD (end of the 18th century AD to the beginning of the 20th century AD)

This period comes after the Post Medieval period and before the modern period and starts with beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1750. It includes the second part of the Hannoverian period (1714 – 1836) and the Victorian period (1837 – 1901). The Imperial period ends with the start of the First World War in 1914.
more ->
period modern About 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
more ->
monument DOVECOTE * A building, or part of a building, used to house doves and pigeons, usually placed at a height above the ground, with openings and provision inside for roosting and breeding. back
monument POOL * A small body of water, either natural or artificial. back
monument CIVIL * This is the top term for the class. See CIVIL Class List for narrow terms. back
monument CONSERVATORY * A glasshouse used to grow and display tender decorative plants. May be either an extension to a house or freestanding. back
monument GOLF COURSE * A prepared area of ground used to play the game of golf on. back
monument HOUSE * A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument HARD * A firm beach or foreshore used for landing and loading of ships and other vessels. In more recent times hards have been reinforced with concrete. back
monument HERBACEOUS BORDER * A long bed planted with perennial flowers and plants. back
monument FISHPOND * A pond used for the rearing, breeding, sorting and storing of fish. back
monument KITCHEN GARDEN * A private garden established primarily for growing vegetables and herbs for domestic consumption. back
monument SETTLEMENT * A small concentration of dwellings. back
monument CARVED STONE * A stone (including standing stones, natural boulders and rock outcrops) decorated with carved motifs. back
monument LODGE * A small building, often inhabited by a gatekeeper, gamekeeper or similar. Use specific type where known. back
monument GATE LODGE * A dwelling, located at the entrance, or gates, to an estate or park, etc. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument LAKE * A large body of water surrounded by land. back
monument CULVERT * A drainage structure that extends across and beneath roadways, canals or embankments. back
monument DEER PARK * A large park for keeping deer. In medieval times the prime purpose was for hunting. back
monument STONE * Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function. back
monument TUNNEL * An underground channel with a vaulted roof. Use specific type where known. back
monument FORMAL GARDEN * A garden of regular, linear or geometrical design, often associated with the traditional Italian, French and Dutch styles. back
monument PARK * An enclosed piece of land, generally large in area, used for hunting, the cultivation of trees, for grazing sheep and cattle or visual enjoyment. Use more specific type where known. back
monument BALUSTRADE * A row of balusters, usually made of stone, surmounted by a rail or coping. back
monument BOUNDARY * The limit to an area as defined on a map or by a marker of some form, eg. BOUNDARY WALL. Use specific type where known. back
monument MILL * A factory used for processing raw materials. Use more specific mill type where known. See also TEXTILE MILL, for more narrow terms. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument GLASSHOUSE * A building made chiefly of glass, used to grow plants and fruit in. Use more specific type where possible. back
monument PARISH CHURCH * The foremost church within a parish. back
monument PRIORY * A monastery governed by a prior or prioress. Use with narrow terms of DOUBLE HOUSE, FRIARY, MONASTERY or NUNNERY. back
monument CHURCH * A building used for public Christian worship. Use more specific type where known. back
monument DRIVE * A road/carriage way giving access from the main road to the house, stables. back
monument PATH * A way made for pedestrians, especially one merely made by walking (often not specially constructed). back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
monument WALK * A place or path for walking in a park or garden. Use more specific type where possible. back
monument TENNIS COURT * A prepared area, traditionally grass, where tennis is played. back
monument PASTURE * A field covered with herbage for the grazing of livestock. back
monument PAVILION * A light, sometimes ornamental structure in a garden, park or place of recreation, used for entertainment or shelter. Use specific type where known. back
monument PARTERRE * A level space in a garden occupied by ornamental flower beds. back
monument FLOWER GARDEN * A garden in which flower beds are the primary focal point. back
monument PIER * A structure of iron or wood, open below, running out into the sea and used as a promenade and landing stage. back
monument CASCADE * An artificial fall of water often taking the form of a water staircase. back
monument BRIDGE * A structure of wood, stone, iron, brick or concrete, etc, with one or more intervals under it to span a river or other space. Use specific type where known. back
monument LEAT * Artificial water channel, usually leading to a mill. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument WOOD * A tract of land with trees, sometimes acting as a boundary or barrier, usually smaller and less wild than a forest. back
monument PARK PALE * A wooden stake fence, often associated with deer hunting. back
monument RAILINGS * A fence or barrier made of metal or wooden rails. back
monument HOTHOUSE * A glasshouse used for the cultivation of tropical plants. back
monument CHURCHYARD * An area of ground belonging to a church, often used as a burial ground. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument FOOTBRIDGE * A narrow bridge for people and animals to cross on foot. back
monument DORIC TEMPLE * An 18th century garden building, designed in the form of a classical Doric temple, used for standing or sitting in. back
monument SQUARE * An open space or area, usually square in plan, in a town or city, enclosed by residential and/or commercial buildings, frequently containing a garden or laid out with trees. back
monument KENNELS * A house or range of buildings in which dogs are kept, eg. hunting hounds. back
monument GARDEN * An enclosed piece of ground devoted to the cultivation of flowers, fruit or vegetables and/or recreational purposes. Use more specific type where known. back
monument LANDSCAPE PARK * Grounds, usually associated with a country house, laid out so as to produce the effect of natural scenery back
monument STRUCTURE * A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. If known, use more specific type. back
monument FARM BUILDING * A building or structure of unknown function found on a farm. Use more specific type where known. back
monument STABLE * A building in which horses are accommodated. back
monument WILD GARDEN * A garden where woodland and meadow flowers grow in an apparently natural way. back
monument ORCHARD * An enclosure used for the cultivation of fruit trees. back
monument PLANTATION * A group of planted trees or shrubs, generally of uniform age and of a single species. back
monument PLEASURE GARDEN * A type of 18th century public park, with refreshment houses, concert rooms, etc. back
monument MEADOW * A piece of grassland, often near a river, permanently covered with grass which is mown for use as hay. back
monument ROUND * A small, Iron Age/Romano-British enclosed settlement found in South West England. back
monument ISLAND * A piece of land, sometimes man-made, completely surrounded by water. back
monument CROSS * A free-standing structure, in the form of a cross (+), symbolizing the structure on which Jesus Christ was crucified and sacred to the Christian faith. Use specific type where known. back
monument WALLED GARDEN * A garden surrounded by a substantial wall. back
monument SPRING * A point where water issues naturally from the rock or soil onto the ground or into a body of surface water. back
monument GATE * A movable stucture which enables or prevents entrance to be gained. Usually situated in a wall or similar barrier and supported by gate posts. back
monument GARDEN TERRACE * A flat, level area of ground within a garden. Often raised and accessed by steps. back
monument LAWN * A flat, and usually level area of mown and cultivated grass, attached to a house. back
monument STEPS * A series of flat-topped structures, usually made of stone or wood, used to facilitate a person's movement from one level to another. back
monument STREAM * A natural flow or current of water issuing from a source. back
monument FARM * A tract of land, often including a farmhouse and ancillary buildings, used for the purpose of cultivation and the rearing of livestock, etc. Use more specific type where known. back
monument FENCE * A construction of wood or metal used to enclose an area of land, a building, etc. back
monument SHRUBBERY * A plantation of shrubs. back
monument SWIMMING POOL * A large, manmade pool, usually lined with tiles, rubber or similar. Can be placed in the open air, eg. a LIDO, or built as part of a covered sports centre. back
monument WALL * An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known. back
monument FOREST * A large tract of land covered with trees and interspersed with open areas of land. Traditionally forests were owned by the monarchy and had their own laws. back
monument EARTHWORK * A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification. back
monument DAM * A barrier of concrete or earth, etc, built across a river to create a reservoir of water for domestic and/or industrial usage. back
monument TERRACE * A row of houses attached to and adjoining one another and planned and built as one unit. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record