Information for record number MWA4561:
Heathcote Home Farm Banjo Enclosure

Summary The site of a trackway and a banjo enclosure which is visible as a cropmark on aerial photographs. It dates to the Iron Age period and is located 200m south of the Heathcote Road, Leamington Spa.
What Is It?  
Type: Banjo Enclosure, Trackway, Enclosure
Period: Iron Age (800 BC - 42 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Warwick
District: Warwick, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 31 63
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record

Source Number  

2 Enclosure and length of trackway, probably overlain by ridge and furrow. The Enclosure may be an example of a banjo enclosure of Iron Age date.
3 Field Survey by RMEF in 1985 produced a few possible (but dubious) worked flints.
4 Noted.
5 Archaeological assessment and evaluation prior to a proposed housing development. Geophysical survey yielded strong responses in the area of the suspected banjo enclosure.
6 Full Geophysical survey undertaken by Geophysical surveys of Bradford.
7 An archaeological evaluation of the site in 1998 recorded archaeological features in the positions indicated by Geophysical survey at a depth of c0.3m below modern ground level. The features were not excavated, but Iron Age pottery was recovered from the surface of some of them. Other features encountered included the remains of Medieval furrows and modern land drains.
8 Observation of groundworks associated with the construction of a cycleway across the Enclosure. No evidence of Iron Age activity was recorded in the area.
9 Summary of Geophysical survey carried out in 1995.
10 A probable Iron Age banjo-Enclosure. It has been mapped as part of the SE Warwickshire and Cotswolds HLS NMP project. The banjo enclosure is centred at SP 3105 6344 and is located within a grassy area east of Ophelia Drive, Heathcote. The banjo enclosure comprises of a ditched curvilinear enclosure, with a funnel entrance orientated to the east. Possibly associated linear features are visible to the south and north of the Enclosure.

Source No: 1
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Author/originator: J Pickering
Date: 1962
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: SP4489 C/D/E/X
Source No: 3
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Banjo Enclosure, Heathcote.
Author/originator: RMEF
Date: 1985
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Field Survey Form
Source No: 5
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Arch Recording at Heathcote Home Farm, Leamington Spa
Author/originator: L Jones
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 6
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Report on Geophys Survey: Heathcote Home Farm, Leamington Spa
Author/originator: Geophysical Surveys of Bradford
Date: 1995
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Report No. 95/86
Source No: 10
Source Type: Desk Top Study
Title: SE Warwickshire and Cotswolds NMP Project
Author/originator: Amanda Dickson
Date: 2010-2012
Page Number:
Source No: 7
Source Type: Evaluation Report
Title: Arch Eval of a 'banjo enclosure' at Heathcote Home Farm
Author/originator: Coutts, C & Jones, C
Date: 1998
Page Number:
Source No: 8
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Archaeological Observation at Heathcote Home Farm, Warwick
Author/originator: Jones C
Date: 1999
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Report No 9915
Source No: 4
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 29
Author/originator: Fowler R
Date: 1986
Page Number: 57
Volume/Sheet: 29
Source No: 9
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA vol 39 (1996)
Author/originator: Mould, C & White, R (eds)
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 39
Source No: 2
Source Type: Unpublished document
Title: SMR Card
Author/originator: Hingley R C
Date: 1984
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: PRN 374
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Word or Phrase
source SMR Card Sites and Monuments Record Card. The Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record began to be developed during the 1970s. The details of individual archaeological sites and findspots were written on record cards. These record cards were used until the 1990s, when their details were entered on to a computerised system. The record cards are still kept at the office of the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
source WMA West Midlands Archaeology. This publication contains a short description for each of the sites where archaeological work has taken place in the previous year. It covers Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. Some of these descriptions include photographs, plans and drawings of the sites and/or the finds that have been discovered. The publication is produced by the Council For British Archaeology (CBA) West Midlands and is published annually. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique Field Survey The term ‘field survey’ is used to describe all work that does not disturb archaeological deposits below the ground through an excavation. Field survey techniques involve recording measurements that help archaeologists draw plans or diagrams of archaeological features. There are a variety of different field survey techniques, including geophysical survey, building recording survey, field walking survey, landscape survey and earthwork survey. back
technique Geophysical Survey The measuring and recording of electrical resistivity or magnetism in order to determine the existence and outline of buried features such as walls and ditches. Geophysical techniques include resistivity survey, magnetometer survey and ground penetrating radar. View Image back
technique Cropmark Cropmarks appear as light and dark marks in growing and ripening crops. These marks relate to differences in the soil below. For example, parched lines of grass may indicate stone walls. Crops that grow over stone features often ripen more quickly and are shorter than the surrounding crop. This is because there is less moisture in the soil where the wall lies.

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technique Aerial Photograph Aerial photographs are taken during an aerial survey, which involves looking at the ground from above. It is usually easier to see cropmarks and earthworks when they are viewed from above. Aerial photographs help archaeologists to record what they see and to identify new sites. There are two kinds of aerial photographs; oblique and vertical. back
period Modern The Modern Period, about 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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period Iron Age About 800 BC to 43 AD

The Iron Age comes after the Bronze Age and before the Roman period. It is a time when people developed the skills and knowledge to work and use iron, hence the name ‘Iron Age’ which is given to this period. Iron is a much tougher and more durable metal than bronze but it also requires more skill to make objects from it. People continued to use bronze during this period.
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period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 – 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 – 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIII’s (1509 – 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
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period modern About 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURE * Use only for features assumed to be archaeological but which cannot be identified more precisely without further investigation .Use more specific term where known back
monument CURVILINEAR ENCLOSURE * A monument consisting of an area of land enclosed by a ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier, where the boundary follows an irregular curving course. back
monument RIDGE AND FURROW * A series of long, raised ridges separated by ditches used to prepare the ground for arable cultivation. This was a technique, characteristic of the medieval period. back
monument ARCH * A structure over an opening usually formed of wedge-shaped blocks of brick or stone held together by mutual pressure and supported at the sides; they can also be formed from moulded concrete/ cast metal. A component; use for free-standing structure only. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument DRAIN * An artificial channel for draining water or carrying it off. back
monument DRIVE * A road/carriage way giving access from the main road to the house, stables. back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
monument LINEAR FEATURE * A length of straight, curved or angled earthwork or cropmark of uncertain date or function. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument BANJO ENCLOSURE * A monument consisting of a small (generally less than 100m diameter) subcircular enclosure with a narrow approach way consisting of parallel ditches (thus banjo shaped). Believed to be associated with stock management in the Later Prehistoric period. back
monument TRACKWAY * A pathway, not necessarily designed as such, beaten down by the feet of travellers. back
monument FARM * A tract of land, often including a farmhouse and ancillary buildings, used for the purpose of cultivation and the rearing of livestock, etc. Use more specific type where known. back
monument SPA * A medicinal or mineral spring often with an associated building. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record