Information for record number MWA5081:
Iron Age/Roman cropmark enclosure, Salford Priors

Summary The site of a large ditched enclosure which is visible as a cropmark on aerial photographs. Inside the enclosure are the remains of a round house, pit cluster and a short ditch, all dating to the Iron Age. The eastern part of the enclosure was annexed in the Roman period. It is located 1km south west of Broom.
What Is It?  
Type: Enclosure, Ditched Enclosure, Pit Cluster, Round House (Domestic), Cremation Burial
Period: Iron Age - Romano-British (800 BC - 409 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Salford Priors
District: Stratford on Avon, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 07 52
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record

Source Number  

2 A rectangular enclosure and two sides of a second possible enclosure show on air photographs.
3 Evaluation of the site in advance of the A435 Norton Lenchwick Bypass work found what is likely to be an extension of the cropmark; there was too little evidence to determine whether it was Iron Age or Romano British.
4 Geophysical survey failed to locate the eastern part of the postulated rectangular enclosure, although two possible pit-like anomalies were detected.
5 Late Iron Age/early Roman site, not thought to continue into the 2nd to 4th centuries. The earlier settlement site seemed to be overlaid by a Roman field system.
6 Excavations of the northern enclosure showed it to be Iron Age in date. No evidence for an associated bank or rampart inside the ditch was found. There are indications of an elaborate gateway structure on the eastern side. Inside the enclosure are the remains of a round house, pit groups and a ditch from the Iron Age. The eastern part of the enclosure was annexed in the Roman period.
8 Dating of the site revised to Iron Age to Romano British.
9 Entries nos <3 - 7> refer to features found on the line of the A435 Bypass, see MWA 7457.
10 Final fieldwork at the quarry took place in 2000, extraction phase 9. It uncovered a large Iron Age ditched enclosure. Stone packed postholes on its eastern side indicated an elaborate gateway structure. Evidence of a round house came from an extended banana gully, and dating was established from pottery from this gully and from a ditch and pits from the north-eastern edge of the enclosure. An annex was identified on the eastern side which had been added in the Romano British period.
11 enclosures and ditches appearing on aerial photographs as crop marks were mapped as part of the English Heritage National Mapping Project.
12 Excavation of this enclosure revealed it to be a large enclosure and with a pit complex. The enclosure is a large sub-square shape about 75m by 75m with an entrance gap in the eastern side. This was bounded by a single ditch with a V-shaped profile. The ditch included charcoal that was radiocarbon dated between 370 and 50 cal BC (GU-11277). The ditch sections did not reveal any silting from one or the other side which would have indicated the presence of a bank. The enclosure included a sinuous gullies which may have been house structures and for a gateway. A series of three pit clusters were revealed in the northern and eastern parts of the enclosure. Radiocarbon dating of material from some of these pits produced Late Iron Age dates. Other pits were undated by the Excavations, but some formed alignments - possibly of a fence-line - on the western side the area excavated. None of the fills of the pits in this case revealed an evidence of post-pipes. The Roman period enclosure continued to be defined by gullies and was added to by the construction of an annexe on the eastern side of the enclosure. This enclosure had it's own entrance which was slightly off-set from the main enclosure, but maintained a direct sight-line to the site of the former central buildings. The annexe appears to have been constructed prior to the full silting of the main enclosure's ditch A human creation was recovered from a gully in the enclosure. Further indivdual and groups of pits were identified, excavated and recorded in this annexe.

Source No: 1
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Title: SP1356
Author/originator: JP
Date: 1965
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: SP1356: A, C, E;SP14
Source No: 11
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Title: SP0752 Frame 34
Author/originator: J Pickering
Date: 8 Jul 1984
Page Number: Frame 34
Volume/Sheet: SP0752
Source No: 6
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Marsh Farm Quarry, Salford Priors: Archaeological Excavation, 4th Interim report, Extraction Phase 9
Author/originator: Palmer S
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Report No 0030
Source No: 5
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: A435 Bypass: Excavations in the Arrow Valley: Interim Report and Post Excavation Proposal
Author/originator: Palmer S C
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Source No: 12
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Iron Age and Romano-British Settlement at Marsh Farm Quarry, Salford Priors: Further Excavations in the Warwickshire Arrow Valley (1991-2000)
Author/originator: Palmer S
Date: 2010
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 0435
Source No: 3
Source Type: Evaluation Report
Title: A435 Bypass Phase 2 Part II: Archaeological Field Evaluations.
Author/originator: Palmer S C
Date: 1993
Page Number:
Source No: 4
Source Type: Geophysical Survey Report
Title: A435 Norton Lenchwick Bypass Phase 2/II
Author/originator: Geophysical Surveys of Bradford
Date: 1993
Page Number:
Source No: 2
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: SMR Card
Author/originator: Hingley R C
Date: 1987
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: PRN 5081
Source No: 10
Source Type: Serial
Title: WMA (West Midlands Archaeology) vol 43
Author/originator: CBA West Midlands
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Source No: 9
Source Type: Verbal communication
Title: Comments on SMR entries
Author/originator: Hester Hawkes
Date: 2002 onwards
Page Number:
Source No: 8
Source Type: Verbal communication
Title: Aggregates Assessment
Author/originator: Stuart Palmer
Date: 2006
Page Number:
There are no images associated with this record.  
back to top


Word or Phrase
source SMR Card Sites and Monuments Record Card. The Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record began to be developed during the 1970s. The details of individual archaeological sites and findspots were written on record cards. These record cards were used until the 1990s, when their details were entered on to a computerised system. The record cards are still kept at the office of the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
source WMA West Midlands Archaeology. This publication contains a short description for each of the sites where archaeological work has taken place in the previous year. It covers Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. Some of these descriptions include photographs, plans and drawings of the sites and/or the finds that have been discovered. The publication is produced by the Council For British Archaeology (CBA) West Midlands and is published annually. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique Geophysical Survey The measuring and recording of electrical resistivity or magnetism in order to determine the existence and outline of buried features such as walls and ditches. Geophysical techniques include resistivity survey, magnetometer survey and ground penetrating radar. View Image back
technique Cropmark Cropmarks appear as light and dark marks in growing and ripening crops. These marks relate to differences in the soil below. For example, parched lines of grass may indicate stone walls. Crops that grow over stone features often ripen more quickly and are shorter than the surrounding crop. This is because there is less moisture in the soil where the wall lies.

more ->
technique excavation Archaeologists excavate sites so that they can find information and recover archaeological materials before they are destroyed by erosion, construction or changes in land-use.

Depending on how complicated and widespread the archaeological deposits are, excavation can be done by hand or with heavy machinery. Archaeologists may excavate a site in a number of ways; either by open area excavation, by digging a test pit or a trial trench.
more ->
technique Radiocarbon Dating Another name for radiocarbon dating is C14 dating. It is used to find out how old some archaeological remains are. Archaeologists do this by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in samples of organic material (from the remains of plants or animals).

All organic materials contain radioactive and non-radioactive carbon in fixed amounts while they are part of living plants or animals. When the plant or animal dies the radioactive carbon starts to decay. By comparing the amount of radioactive carbon left in the organic material with the amount of stable carbon, archaeologists can find out how old it is.
technique Aerial Photograph Aerial photographs are taken during an aerial survey, which involves looking at the ground from above. It is usually easier to see cropmarks and earthworks when they are viewed from above. Aerial photographs help archaeologists to record what they see and to identify new sites. There are two kinds of aerial photographs; oblique and vertical. back
period Iron Age About 800 BC to 43 AD

The Iron Age comes after the Bronze Age and before the Roman period. It is a time when people developed the skills and knowledge to work and use iron, hence the name ‘Iron Age’ which is given to this period. Iron is a much tougher and more durable metal than bronze but it also requires more skill to make objects from it. People continued to use bronze during this period.
more ->
period Roman About 43 AD to 409 AD (the 1st century AD to the 5th century AD)

The Roman period comes after the Iron Age and before the Saxon period.

The Roman period in Britain began in 43 AD when a Roman commander called Aulus Plautius invaded the south coast, near Kent. There were a series of skirmishes with the native Britons, who were defeated. In the months that followed, more Roman troops arrived and slowly moved westwards and northwards.
more ->
monument FIELDWORK * A usually temporary earthwork or fortification, the latter constructed by military forces operating in the field. Use more specific type where known. back
monument HOUSE * A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument SETTLEMENT * A small concentration of dwellings. back
monument CREMATION BURIAL * The site of the formal burial of cremated bone, sometimes 'urned' in a vessel or casket of glass, wood or, more commonly, ceramic. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument STONE * Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument DITCHED ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by one or several boundary ditches. Double index with a term to indicate the shape of the enclosure where known. back
monument RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE * A rectangular shaped area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier. back
monument GULLY * A deep gutter, drain or sink. back
monument PIT CLUSTER * A spatially discrete group of pits usually containing artefactual material with little or no accompanying evidence for structural features. back
monument RAMPART * A protective earthen mound, often the main defence of a fortification. back
monument PIT * A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known. back
monument FIELD * An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock. back
monument FIELD SYSTEM * A group or complex of fields which appear to form a coherent whole. Use more specific type where known. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument GATEWAY * A substantial structure supporting or surrounding a gate. May be ornate or monumental, and have associated structures such as lodges, tollbooths, guard houses etc. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument SQUARE * An open space or area, usually square in plan, in a town or city, enclosed by residential and/or commercial buildings, frequently containing a garden or laid out with trees. back
monument STRUCTURE * A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. If known, use more specific type. back
monument MARSH * A low lying area of land that is usually waterlogged at all times and is flooded in wet weather. back
monument ROUND * A small, Iron Age/Romano-British enclosed settlement found in South West England. back
monument QUARRY * An excavation from which stone for building and other functions, is obtained by cutting, blasting, etc. back
monument FARM * A tract of land, often including a farmhouse and ancillary buildings, used for the purpose of cultivation and the rearing of livestock, etc. Use more specific type where known. back
monument FENCE * A construction of wood or metal used to enclose an area of land, a building, etc. back
monument DOMESTIC * This is the top term for the class. See DOMESTIC Class List for narrow terms. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record