Information for record number MWA5297:
The Lunt Roman Fort: Period 2

Summary The Lunt, a fort that was rebuilt several times throughout the Roman period. During an excavation the remains of the defences, ovens, a gatehouse, granary and barracks were found from the second phase of occupation. It is situated north of Coventry Road, Baginton.
What Is It?  
Type: Fort, Oven, Building, Gatehouse, Granary, Barracks, Gyrus
Period: Romano-British (43 AD - 409 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Baginton
District: Warwick, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 34 75
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Scheduled Monument (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record
Picture(s) attached

 
Description

 
Source Number  

1 Excavation in 1966-7 indicated a second period of occupation within the late Neronian-early Flavian period (cAD 60-79). Period 2 is c70-90. Evidence was found for the W, E and possibly for the N defences, with associated rampart-ovens; also for a gateway, granary, barrack-block and a further building. Finds included coins, Samian, brooches, coarse ware, and military bronzes.
2 Further Excavations 1968-71. Period 2 was more closely dated to cAD 64-70? The E gate was fully excavated, but S and W gates can only be inferred. Several buildings were excavated including a gyrus, principia, praetorium, two granaries and six barrack blocks. In addition two further Periods were distinguished (PRN 5298, 5299).
3 Further Excavations after 1971 altered the dating of Phase 2 to cAD 64-77/8. Further work was conducted on a number of buildings within the fort. In addition a probable stable building was uncovered. The cumulative evidence of horse fittings, stabling (?), an extensive metalworking area, adequate granary and storage space, the gyrus and the size of the praetorium suggests a cavalry presence at the fort at this time. There is also possible evidence for cavalry training which could indicate the drafting of Britons into the Roman army.
5 Scheduled as Warwickshire Monument No 126.
8 Excavation in 1990-1 partly emptied the defensive ditches and revealed features suggesting a later palisade. There were also vestiges of occupation outside the defences. The line of the western defences continued to be uncovered as they met the NW corner of the fort.
9 The postulated mess hall and intervallum road identified in previous seasons must be discounted and only the oven can securely be dated to the Roman period. The linear slot (see WA 2673), may belong to a period 1 building or a setting out slot for the period 2 rampart. It is certain that the period 2 inner ditch follows the line of a gravel bank and that the profile of this section of ditch appears not to be defensive in nature. The defensive system on the western side of the fort appears to be different from that on the eastern side, in having a triple ditch system.
10 Most of the work undertaken in the 1996 season was concentrated on the area to the W of the gravel bank, particularly the inner and wide ditches that form the western defences. It was concluded that the Period 2 inner ditch does follow the line of the gravel bank and its profile varies considerably; from a defensive ditch to the S to a U-shape, almost a U-shape, and then finally a fairly shallow ditch in the area of the present Excavations. These changes may be due to topographic variations along the ditch's course. It seems that post-pits found along the edge of the gravel bank may well have formed a double row of timber emplacements, possibly part of a rampart structure. However, the relationship of the feature to the inner ditch would cause problems in the phasing and so it may be that the post pits are actually part of the Period 3 or even Period 4 rampart (WA 5298/WA 5299).
11 Work carried out during the 1997 season was again concentrated on the area to the W of the gravel bank, investigating the relationship between the outer, inner and wide ditches. Work in a section revealed that the wide ditch cut through the outer ditch and is therefore later. A sherd of medieval green glaze pot was found in the upper fill of the outer ditch, dating the wide ditch to the medieval period.
12 Excavations between 1988 and 1991 in the NW part of the fort found considerable plough disturbance. However, the line of the Period 2 rampart and part of the intervallum road was traced. A circular clay oven was discovered in 1991.
13 Continual cleaning of the area to the west of the outer ditch has gradually revealed a little more evidence of occupation in this area. Other than the 'F' and post hole buildings, very little has been found in this area, suggesting perhaps that it was sparsely inhabited. The occupation in the western part of the Excavation may not be Roman but post Roman in date, or both.
14 Excavations of defensive ditches
15 Scheduling revision.
16 Scheduling information from 1978 showing additional area of the monument.
17 Report of work carried out in 2001.
18 Report of work from 1992.
 
Sources

Source No: 19
Source Type: Article in monograph
Title: True as Coventry Blue, Papers presented to Margaret Rylatt (City Archaeologist, Coventry 1973-2000)
Author/originator: Soden I (eds)
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 9
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Lunt Roman Fort
Author/originator: Barrett A
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 11
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Lunt Roman Fort
Author/originator: Barrett, A.A. Kelly, S.E. Esnor, S. Perry, J.G
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 10
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Lunt Roman Fort: Interim Report
Author/originator: Barrett A A & Perry J G
Date: 1996
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 1
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: TBAS vol 83
Author/originator: Hobley B
Date: 1969
Page Number: 65-129
Volume/Sheet: 83
   
Source No: 2
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: TBAS vol 85
Author/originator: Hobley B
Date: 1973
Page Number: 7-92
Volume/Sheet: 85
   
Source No: 3
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: TBAS vol 87
Author/originator: Hobley B
Date: 1975
Page Number: 1-46
Volume/Sheet: 87
   
Source No: 13
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Lunt Roman Fort: Interim Report 1999
Author/originator: A Barrett and J Perry
Date: 1999
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 17
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Lunt Roman Fort: Intermin Report 2001
Author/originator: Anon - University of British Columbia 2001
Date: 2001
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 18
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Excavations at The Lunt: the Western Defences 1992
Author/originator: Perry J and Barrett, A
Date: 1992
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 4
Source Type: Plan
Title: TBAS vol 87
Author/originator: Hobley B
Date: 1975
Page Number: Fig 1
Volume/Sheet: 87
   
Source No: 7
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: OS Card 46SE10
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1974
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 46SE10
   
Source No: 8
Source Type: Serial
Title: West Midlands Archaeology 34 (WMA Volume 34)
Author/originator: CBA Group 8
Date: 1991
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 34
   
Source No: 12
Source Type: Serial
Title: Excavations at the Lunt Roman Fort (1988-91): The Western Defences
Author/originator: Classical Views. Barrett, A A & Perry, J G
Date: 1992
Page Number: 201-209
Volume/Sheet: Vol XXXVI, No 11
   
Source No: 5
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Roman Fort on the Lunt
Author/originator: Ministry of Works/DoE
Date:
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 6
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: SAM List 1983
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1983
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 15
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Roman Fort at the Lunt
Author/originator: EH
Date: 2000
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Source No: 16
Source Type: Scheduling record
Title: Roman Fort on the Lunt (additional area)
Author/originator: DoE
Date: 1978
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet:
   
Images:  
Excavations at The Lunt Roman Fort, Baginton
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 2001
Click here for larger image  
 
A reconstruction of the gyrus at The Lunt Roman Fort, Baginton
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 2001
Click here for larger image  
 
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Glossary

 
Word or Phrase
Description  
none Scheduled Monument Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAMs) are those archaeological sites which are legally recognised as being of national importance. They can range in date from prehistoric times to the Cold War period. They can take many different forms, including disused buildings or sites surviving as earthworks or cropmarks.

SAMs are protected by law from unlicensed disturbance and metal detecting. Written consent from the Secretary of State must be obtained before any sort of work can begin, including archaeological work such as geophysical survey or archaeological excavation. There are nearly 200 SAMs in Warwickshire.
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source OS Card Ordnance Survey Record Card. Before the 1970s the Ordnance Survey (OS) were responsible for recording archaeological monuments during mapping exercises. This helped the Ordnance Survey to decide which monuments to publish on maps. During these exercises the details of the monuments were written down on record cards. Copies of some of the cards are kept at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. The responsibility for recording archaeological monuments later passed to the Royal Commission on Ancient and Historic Monuments. back
source SAM List Scheduled Ancient Monument List. A list or schedule of archaelogical and historic monuments that are considered to be of national importance. The list contains a detailed description of each Scheduled Ancient Monument (SAM) and a map showing their location and extent. By being placed on the schedule, SAMs are protected by law from any unauthorised distrubance. The list has been compiled and is maintained by English Heritage. It is updated periodically. back
source TBAS Transactions of the Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeological Society is a journal produced by the society annually. It contains articles about archaeological field work that has taken place in Birmingham and Warwickshire in previous years. Copies of the journal are kept by the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
source WMA West Midlands Archaeology. This publication contains a short description for each of the sites where archaeological work has taken place in the previous year. It covers Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. Some of these descriptions include photographs, plans and drawings of the sites and/or the finds that have been discovered. The publication is produced by the Council For British Archaeology (CBA) West Midlands and is published annually. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique excavation Archaeologists excavate sites so that they can find information and recover archaeological materials before they are destroyed by erosion, construction or changes in land-use.

Depending on how complicated and widespread the archaeological deposits are, excavation can be done by hand or with heavy machinery. Archaeologists may excavate a site in a number of ways; either by open area excavation, by digging a test pit or a trial trench.
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period Roman About 43 AD to 409 AD (the 1st century AD to the 5th century AD)

The Roman period comes after the Iron Age and before the Saxon period.

The Roman period in Britain began in 43 AD when a Roman commander called Aulus Plautius invaded the south coast, near Kent. There were a series of skirmishes with the native Britons, who were defeated. In the months that followed, more Roman troops arrived and slowly moved westwards and northwards.
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period Medieval 1066 AD to 1539 AD (the 11th century AD to the 16th century AD)

The medieval period comes after the Saxon period and before the post medieval period.

The Medieval period begins in 1066 AD.
This was the year that the Normans, led by William the Conqueror (1066 ā€“ 1087), invaded England and defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex.
The Medieval period includes the first half of the Tudor period (1485 ā€“ 1603 AD), when the Tudor family reigned in England and eventually in Scotland too.

The end of the Medieval period is marked by Henry VIIIā€™s (1509 ā€“ 1547) order for the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the years running up to 1539 AD. The whole of this period is sometimes called the Middle Ages.
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monument PALISADE * An enclosure of stakes driven into the ground, sometimes for defensive purposes. back
monument OVEN * A brick, stone or iron receptacle for baking bread or other food in. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument BARRACKS * A building used to house members of the armed forces. back
monument FORT * A permanently occupied position or building designed primarily for defence. back
monument RAMPART * A protective earthen mound, often the main defence of a fortification. back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
monument PIT * A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known. back
monument GATEHOUSE * A gateway with one or more chambers over the entrance arch; the flanking towers housing stairs and additional rooms. Use with wider site type where known. back
monument WELL * A shaft or pit dug in the ground over a supply of spring-water. back
monument DEFENCE * This is the top term for the class. See DEFENCE Class List for narrow terms. back
monument GATEWAY * A substantial structure supporting or surrounding a gate. May be ornate or monumental, and have associated structures such as lodges, tollbooths, guard houses etc. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument MESS * A military dining room where members of the armed forces eat and take recreation. back
monument STRUCTURE * A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. If known, use more specific type. back
monument STABLE * A building in which horses are accommodated. back
monument ROW * A row of buildings built during different periods, as opposed to a TERRACE. back
monument GYRUS * A sunken arena used by the Romans for training cavalry horses and recruits. back
monument GATE * A movable stucture which enables or prevents entrance to be gained. Usually situated in a wall or similar barrier and supported by gate posts. back
monument GRANARY * A building, or first-floor room in a building, for the dry and secure storage of grain after it has been threshed and winnowed. back
monument POST HOLE * A hole dug to provide a firm base for an upright post, often with stone packing. Use broader monument type where known. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record