Information for record number MWA6948:
Farnborough Hall Park, Farnborough

Summary An extensive mid 18th century landscape with significant elements designed by Sanderson Miller, together with early 19th century gardens and pleasure grounds.
What Is It?  
Type: Landscape Park, Kitchen Garden, Formal Garden, Walk, Pond, Drive, Ha Ha, Garden Terrace, Balustrade, Rose Garden, Cascade, Obelisk, Lake, Stable, Dairy
Period: Modern - Modern (1600 AD - 2050 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Avon Dassett
District: Stratford on Avon, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 42 49
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Registered Park or Garden (Grade: I)
Sites & Monuments Record

Source Number  

8 Farnborough Hall cover circa 115 site and comprises 5 hectares of gardens and pleasure grounds around the Hall, and a further circa 110 hectares of parkland, lakes, and ornamental plantations. An avenue extends south-west from the site through agricultural land, while a minor road leading west from Farnborough to Avon Dassett passes through the site to the north-west of the Hall; this road was constructed on its present course by Archdeacon Holbech in the mid 19th century. There are significant views west and south from the Terrace Walk across the Vale of the Red Horse and the Warmington valley which are framed to the south-west by the Edge Hill escarpment and to the north-west by the Dassett hills; there is late 18th or early 19th century ornamental planting on the south-facing slope north of the minor road leading from Farnborough to Avon Dassett immediately west of the site. ENTRANCES AND APPROACHES Farnborough Hall is approached from the village of Farnborough to the north-east. The entrance is marked by a pair of low stone piers surmounted by ball finials which support a single early 19th century timber and metal gate. The entrance is flanked to north-west and south-east by low saddle-coped stone walls. A gravelled drive flanked by rectangular lawns extends circa 80m south-west through the outer forecourt. The outer forecourt is enclosed to the north-east by evergreen shrubbery and mature trees which screen the public road, while to the north-west it is enclosed by stone walls. To the south-east, Lady Pond, a rectangular Pond of 17th century or earlier origins adjoins the outer forecourt, from which it is separated by a simple railed clairvoie. At the south-west end of the outer forecourt, the drive crosses a service drive which leads south-east to the park, and north-west to the 18th century stables and the early 19th century coach house which enclose a cobbled yard circa 50m north of the Hall. The stables were remodelled and the coach house built by Henry Hakewill for William Holbech IV in 1815-16. A further gravelled drive leads circa 50m north-west from the stable yard to the Avon Dassett road. This road was diverted to its present course by William Holbech IV in 1815 (WCRO); in 1772 it passed through the farmyard circa 50m north of the Hall and thence along the boundary of the pleasure grounds, circa 30m south-east of its present route. The principal drive passes from the outer forecourt into the inner forecourt below the north-east facade of the Hall through a pair of low, ornamental wrought-iron gates. These are supported on a pair of low stone piers with flat tops which are in turn flanked by low stone walls with flat coping and regularly spaced piers supporting urns; the gates, piers, and flanking walls were designed by Hakewill circa 1815. The inner forecourt is enclosed to the north-west by a high brick wall which curves down to the north-east wall in two stages; a similar wall encloses the forecourt to the south-east. Doors set in the walls near the Hall lead respectively north-west to the pleasure grounds and south-east to the former service quarters. The drive encloses a central circular lawn, while further panels of lawn to the north-west and south-east separate the carriage turn from herbaceous borders. PRINCIPAL BUILDING Farnborough Hall (MWA7158) is situated towards the centre of the site below a north-west- and west-facing slope which rises rapidly to the south-west, and above an area of park which drops away to the lakes to the south-west. gardenS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS Informal and formal gardens and pleasure grounds lie to the west of the Hall, with further informal pleasure grounds and Walks to the south; there is a further detached area of pleasure grounds and Walks to the north. To the west of the Hall a level lawn extends circa 50m north-west to an 18th century brick ha-ha which allows views to Sourland Pool and Stambra Wood circa 160m north-west of the Hall; a narrow flight of brick steps descends from the lawn to a wicket gate leading to the park beyond. A gravel Walk extends along the north and west sides of the lawn to reach a Walk which leads south-west from the lawn. Some 100m west of the Hall the Walk reaches a shallow flight of stone steps which ascends to a partly stone-flagged Terrace with inset borders. The Terrace is enclosed to the west and north by brick walls circa 3.5m high, and to the south by a low stone balustrade; a stuccoed niche in the centre of the west wall contains a Wooden bench seat. The Terrace and walls are the remains of a conservatory constructed in 1776 for William Holbech III. An early 19th century brick-lined icehouse is situated under a mound. A flight of stone steps descends south from the Terrace to a formal rose garden which is enclosed to the east and south by stone balustrades, and to the west by a higher stone wall. A 19th century stone urn stands on a stone pedestal at the centre of the garden, and there are further 20th century stone urns arranged on the surrounding balustrades. The rose garden formed part of the early 19th century improvements to the pleasure grounds made by Henry Hakewill. To the east of the rose garden the gravel Walk continues circa 50m south-west to reach a mid 18th century cascade at the head of Rookery Pool. The cascade formed part of William Holbech II's mid 18th century development of the pleasure grounds and may have been designed by Miller; it was constructed on the site of an earlier Mill. The pleasure ground Walk corresponds to an early 18th century yew walk which ran parallel to the west boundary of the gardens. The west lawn returns below the south façade of the Hall, where an early or mid 18th century stone baluster sundial stands circa 5m west of the south-west corner of the Hall. The Terrace extends circa 700m south and south-east, ascending gently to reach a mid 18th century obelisk which overlooks the Hanwell valley. Beyond the obelisk, the Terrace turns sharply east, and extends circa 350m east and north-east to reach the site of the Pentagon Temple, a mid 18th century structure which stood at the highest point of the grounds immediately west of the mid 19th century park Cottage. The Temple is marked on Yates' Map of Warwickshire (1793), but had been removed by the mid 19th century The lower section of the Terrace is ornamented with three structures, 320m south of the Hall the Ionic Temple stands on a semi-circular bastion projecting from the west side of the Terrace surrounded by 19th century ornamental shrubbery. The Temple comprises an open pediment supported by four Ionic columns fronting a rectangular stone-flagged recess which contains a timber bench seat. The Ionic Temple was constructed circa 1750, probably to the design of Sanderson Miller. Some 590m south of the Hall, the Oval Pavilion stands on a mound on the east side of the Terrace. Oval on plan, the Pavilion comprises a ground-floor loggia supported by four Tuscan columns, within which a stone-flagged recess supports an elliptical stone table and a bench seat. A curved flight of stone steps with a wrought-iron hand-rail ascends outside the east façade of the Pavilion to reach a first-floor prospect room which is decorated with fine ornamental plasterwork attributed to William Perritt. There are extensive westerly views from this room. The Oval Pavilion was constructed probably to the design of Sanderson Miller, inspired by the oval Pavilion attributed to Inigo Jones in the grounds of Ecton Hall, Northamptonshire. The third structure is the mid 18th century obelisk which marks the southern end of the principal or lower Terrace. Some 130m south-east of the Hall a mid 18th century Game Larder stands to the north-east of the Terrace Walk; it is separated from the Terrace by a mid 18th century brick wall circa 3m high, and is approached through a door set in the wall. A 19th century wrought-iron gate leads south-east to the adjoining paddock. The Game Larder comprises an octagonal Pavilion surmounted by a pitched roof and a louvered timber cupola. The northern sides of the Pavilion are recessed, the roof being supported on Tuscan columns to shelter a bench seat set on a flagged Terrace. There are two further, detached areas of pleasure grounds to the north-west and north of the Hall. 160m north-west of the Hall and separated from the gardens by the road to Avon Dassett and a meadow known in the late 18th century as Miller's Close, Sourland Pool is a mid 18th century lake of natural appearance which is retained to the south and west by a massive earth dam. A further area of detached pleasure ground survives as earthworks in fields circa 750m north of the Hall. The western section of this Terrace corresponds to an approximately semi-circular avenue shown on the 1772 plan. park The park comprises two areas: land to the south of the Hall on the west- and south-facing slopes below the Terrace Walk; and on the high ground to the south-east of the Hall, and east of the Terrace Walk. The park to the south of the Hall comprises pasture with mixed scattered trees on the slope which drops from the Terrace Walk to Rookery Pool, a long, narrow, approximately L-shaped lake which is fed via the cascade by the outflow from Sourland Pool and the Oval Pool. To the west of Rookery Pool a stream is dammed to form a series of serpentine Pools separated by the remains of 18th century dams and sluices; these are separated from Rookery Pool by an area of Woodland. A track leads south-west and south from the western (lower) end of the Terrace Walk through the south park, passing to the north of an early 19th century picturesque dairy circa 320m south-south-west of the Hall. The design of the dairy is attributed to Hakewill; it formed part of the remodelling of the south park and Rookery Pool which was undertaken for William Holbech IV circa 1815. In the late 18th century the south park was divided into three enclosures. The north-east enclosure was known as the dairy Ground, while that to the south-west was the Warren. The third enclosure, a low-lying meadow below the obelisk, was known as Markham Hole; by the late 19th century it was separated from the Warren by a sunk fence. The south-east park comprises an extensive single pasture enclosure with scattered trees on a north-east-facing slope, and the summit of Markham Hill south-east of the Hall. To the north the park is separated from the paddock by an 18th century brick wall circa 3m high, while to the west it is bounded by a 20th century fence which separates it from the Terrace Walk. The eastern or upper Terrace now lies within the park. On the summit of Markham Hill, some 530m south-east of the Hall, a late 19th or early 20th century single-storey timber and corrugated-iron cricket pavilion survives in a derelict condition. In the late 18th century the south-east park comprised three enclosures, of which the northern enclosure was described as the 'park'. KITCHEN GARDEN The KITCHEN GARDEN is situated circa 400m east-north-east of the Hall. The garden is octagonal on plan, and is enclosed by late 18th century brick walls circa 3m high under stone coping. Doorways are placed centrally in the west, south, and east walls. Attached to the outer side of the north wall of the garden a late 18trh century two-storey brick cottage stands in a former service yard. OTHER LAND Oak or Oakal Hill, a meadow circa 530m south-east of the Hall and to the east of the minor road which forms the eastern boundary of the park.
2 Evidence of early 19th century work in park.
3 It is assumed that there were formal gardens associated with the 17th century house, but no trace remains. The 18th century designed landscape is shown in full on an estate survey of 1772, though many features, including the Serpentine Terrace and most of the Temple and other structures, were created in the 1740s. The park contained a complex system of water features, again mid 18th century. The design seems to have been that of William Holbeche, with the advice of Sanderson Miller, and is comparable with that of a number of contemporary ferme ornee designs in Warwickshire, including Radway Grange. Late 18th and 19th century developments include the pleasure ground north-west of the house and an octagonal KITCHEN GARDEN.
7 A parkland plan, combining cartographic, historical and documentary research with initial archaeological assessment. Contains extensive information on the historical development of the parkland as well as research on elements of the current designed landscape.

Source No: 1
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Register of Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England
Author/originator: English Heritage
Date: 1994
Page Number:
Source No: 2
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Warwickshire Register Review Data Tables (Stratford on Avon)
Author/originator: Lovie, Jonathan
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 3
Source Type: Bibliographic reference
Title: Warwickshire Register Review Report & Recommendations
Author/originator: Lovie, Jonathan
Date: 1997
Page Number:
Source No: 7
Source Type: Cultural Heritage Assessment
Title: Farnborough Hall: Parkland Plan (First Draft)
Author/originator: Askew Nelson Ltd.
Date: 2013
Page Number:
Source No: 8
Source Type: Statuatory List
Title: National Heritage List for England
Author/originator: Historic England
Page Number:
Source No: 4
Source Type: Map
Title: 52NE 1:10560 1886
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1886
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 52NE
Source No: 5
Source Type: Map
Title: 52NE 1:10560 1923
Author/originator: Ordnance Survey
Date: 1923
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 52NE
Source No: 6
Source Type: Map
Title: Greenwood's Map of the County of Warwick 1822
Author/originator: Greenwood C & J
Date: 1822
Page Number:
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Word or Phrase
none Registered Park or Garden Parks and gardens that are considered to be of historic importance are placed on a register. The register comprises a variety of town gardens, public parks and country estates. The main purpose of the register is to help ensure that the features and qualities that make the parks and gardens special are safeguarded if changes are being considered which could affect them.

The gardens on the register are divided into three grades in order to give some guidance about their significance, in a similar way to Listed Buildings. The majority of parks and gardens on the Register are of sufficient interest as to be designated as grade II. Some, however, are recognised as being of exceptional historic interest and are awarded a star giving them grade II* status. A small number are of international importance, and are classified as grade I.
technique Earthwork Earthworks can take the form of banks, ditches and mounds. They are usually created for a specific purpose. A bank, for example, might be the remains of a boundary between two or more fields. Some earthworks may be all that remains of a collapsed building, for example, the grassed-over remains of building foundations.

In the winter, when the sun is lower in the sky than during the other seasons, earthworks have larger shadows. From the air, archaeologists are able to see the patterns of the earthworks more easily. Earthworks can sometimes be confusing when viewed at ground level, but from above, the general plan is much clearer.

Archaeologists often carry out an aerial survey or an earthwork survey to help them understand the lumps and bumps they can see on the ground.
period Modern The Modern Period, about 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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period modern About 1915 AD to the present (the 20th and 21st centuries AD)

In recent years archaeologists have realised the importance of recording modern sites. They do this so that in the future people will be able to look at the remains to help them understand the events to which they are related.
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monument YARD * A paved area, generally found at the back of a house. back
monument POOL * A small body of water, either natural or artificial. back
monument ROSE GARDEN * A garden, often geometrical in layout, or area for the cultivation of roses. back
monument ICEHOUSE * A structure, partly underground, for the preservation of ice for use during warmer weather. back
monument CONSERVATORY * A glasshouse used to grow and display tender decorative plants. May be either an extension to a house or freestanding. back
monument GRANGE * An outlying farm or estate, usually belonging to a religious order or feudal lord. Specifically related to core buildings and structures associated with monastic land holding. Use specific term where known. back
monument PADDOCK * An enclosed field for horses. back
monument HOUSE * A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known. back
monument VILLAGE * A collection of dwelling-houses and other buildings, usually larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town with a simpler organisation and administration than the latter. back
monument BENCH * A long seat, usually made of stone or wood, with or without a back. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument HERBACEOUS BORDER * A long bed planted with perennial flowers and plants. back
monument BORDER * A strip of ground forming a fringe to a garden. Use more specific type where known. back
monument KITCHEN GARDEN * A private garden established primarily for growing vegetables and herbs for domestic consumption. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument LAKE * A large body of water surrounded by land. back
monument STONE * Use only where stone is natural or where there is no indication of function. back
monument FORMAL GARDEN * A garden of regular, linear or geometrical design, often associated with the traditional Italian, French and Dutch styles. back
monument PARK * An enclosed piece of land, generally large in area, used for hunting, the cultivation of trees, for grazing sheep and cattle or visual enjoyment. Use more specific type where known. back
monument BALUSTRADE * A row of balusters, usually made of stone, surmounted by a rail or coping. back
monument FLOOR * A layer of stone, brick or boards, etc, on which people tread. Use broader site type where known. back
monument BOUNDARY * The limit to an area as defined on a map or by a marker of some form, eg. BOUNDARY WALL. Use specific type where known. back
monument STONE TABLE * A table made of stone, found in streets, parks, etc. back
monument MILL * A factory used for processing raw materials. Use more specific mill type where known. See also TEXTILE MILL, for more narrow terms. back
monument URN * A garden ornament, usually of stone or metal, designed in the the form of a vase used to receive the ashes of the dead. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument POND * A body of still water often artificially formed for a specific purpose. Use specifc type where known. back
monument FACADE * Use wider site type where known. Only use term where no other part of original building survives. back
monument DRIVE * A road/carriage way giving access from the main road to the house, stables. back
monument OBELISK * A tall, tapering pillar with a pyramidal top, generally square on plan. Used in England from the late 16th century as a public, funerary or garden monument. back
monument FORECOURT * The court or enclosed space at the front of a building or structure. back
monument SHELTER * A structure which protects an area of ground from the weather. back
monument ROAD * A way between different places, used by horses, travellers on foot and vehicles. back
monument FARMYARD * A yard or enclosure attached to a farmhouse, usually surrounded by other farm buildings. back
monument WALK * A place or path for walking in a park or garden. Use more specific type where possible. back
monument WATER FEATURE * A body of water, building or structure found in a park or garden used as a water supply or ornament. Use more specific type where known. back
monument PEDESTAL * A concrete, cylindrical pedestal on which a spigot mortar was mounted. The pedestal is often the only evidence for a Spigot Mortar emplacement to survive. back
monument SEAT * An external structure used to sit on. back
monument PASTURE * A field covered with herbage for the grazing of livestock. back
monument PAVILION * A light, sometimes ornamental structure in a garden, park or place of recreation, used for entertainment or shelter. Use specific type where known. back
monument WELL * A shaft or pit dug in the ground over a supply of spring-water. back
monument PIER * A structure of iron or wood, open below, running out into the sea and used as a promenade and landing stage. back
monument CASCADE * An artificial fall of water often taking the form of a water staircase. back
monument FIELD * An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock. back
monument GAME LARDER * A small building in which game is hung up and kept cool. back
monument COACH HOUSE * An outbuilding where a horse-drawn carriage is kept. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument WOOD * A tract of land with trees, sometimes acting as a boundary or barrier, usually smaller and less wild than a forest. back
monument BASTION * A flanking tower, or projection from the main walls of a defensive work from which a garrison can defend the ground in front or on the flank. back
monument DAIRY * A building or group of buildings used for the making, processing, storing and selling of milk and other dairy products. back
monument CRICKET PAVILION * A building adjoining a cricket pitch with facilities for players and spectators. back
monument COLUMN * Use for free standing column. back
monument LOGGIA * A covered arcade, often attached to a building, open on one or more sides. back
monument GARDEN * An enclosed piece of ground devoted to the cultivation of flowers, fruit or vegetables and/or recreational purposes. Use more specific type where known. back
monument LANDSCAPE PARK * Grounds, usually associated with a country house, laid out so as to produce the effect of natural scenery back
monument SLUICE * A dam which can be raised or lowered to regulate the flow of water. back
monument STRUCTURE * A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. If known, use more specific type. back
monument SUNDIAL * A structure used to show the time of day by means of the sun shining on a 'gnomon', the shadow of which falls on the surface of the dial which is marked with a diagram showing the hours. Can be freestanding, usually on a pillar, or fixed to a building. back
monument STABLE * A building in which horses are accommodated. back
monument PLANTATION * A group of planted trees or shrubs, generally of uniform age and of a single species. back
monument HA HA * A dry ditch or sunken fence which divided the formal garden from the landscaped park without interrupting the view. back
monument MEADOW * A piece of grassland, often near a river, permanently covered with grass which is mown for use as hay. back
monument CROSS * A free-standing structure, in the form of a cross (+), symbolizing the structure on which Jesus Christ was crucified and sacred to the Christian faith. Use specific type where known. back
monument YEW WALK * A garden walk lined with yew trees and hedges. back
monument GATE * A movable stucture which enables or prevents entrance to be gained. Usually situated in a wall or similar barrier and supported by gate posts. back
monument GARDEN TERRACE * A flat, level area of ground within a garden. Often raised and accessed by steps. back
monument LAWN * A flat, and usually level area of mown and cultivated grass, attached to a house. back
monument STEPS * A series of flat-topped structures, usually made of stone or wood, used to facilitate a person's movement from one level to another. back
monument STREAM * A natural flow or current of water issuing from a source. back
monument MOUND * A natural or artificial elevation of earth or stones, such as the earth heaped upon a grave. Use more specific type where known. back
monument IONIC TEMPLE * An 18th century garden building, designed in the style of a classical Ionic temple, used for standing or sitting in. back
monument FENCE * A construction of wood or metal used to enclose an area of land, a building, etc. back
monument SHRUBBERY * A plantation of shrubs. back
monument WALL * An enclosing structure composed of bricks, stones or similar materials, laid in courses. Use specific type where known. back
monument TEMPLE * Use for places of worship. For later landscape features use, eg. GARDEN TEMPLE. back
monument FERME ORNEE * A rustic building of picturesque design, often associated with a model farm, country house or estate. Although ornamental in design they are intended to be functional. back
monument EARTHWORK * A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification. back
monument DAM * A barrier of concrete or earth, etc, built across a river to create a reservoir of water for domestic and/or industrial usage. back
monument TERRACE * A row of houses attached to and adjoining one another and planned and built as one unit. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record