Information for record number MWA957:
Late Bronze age to Romano-British settlement at Grove Field Farm

Summary Aerial photographs show enclosures, pits, gullies and linear features at this site. Partial excavation has suggested a Later Prehistoric to Romano-British date, confirmed by radiocarbon dating. The location is in the area of Grove Field Farm, Wasperton.
What Is It?  
Type: Settlement, Enclosure, Linear Feature, Gully, Pit, Round House (Domestic), Palisade
Period: Late Iron Age (100 BC - 42 AD)
Where Is It?  
Parish: Wasperton
District: Warwick, Warwickshire
Grid Reference: SP 26 59
(Data represented on this map shows the current selected record as a single point, this is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent an accurate or complete representation of archaeological sites or features)
Level of Protection National - Old SMR PrefRef (Grade: )
Sites & Monuments Record
Picture(s) attached


Source Number  

1 Various small enclosures and pits.
3 Air photographs show a complex of enclosures including four or more rectangular/subrectangular enclosures, a number of scatters of pits, penannular gullies, other possible enclosures and linear features. The site is undated, but on morphological grounds may be Iron Age and Romano British.
4 The site appears on air photographs as a right-angled double ditch, showing quite strongly in permanent pasture. Two cuttings were made: one sectioned the inner ditch, the other inconclusively explored a further section of it in an attempt to recover additional dating evidence. The section revealed a ditch 3.6m wide and 1.4m deep, dug as a somewhat irregular shallow U through natural strata of sand and gravel. Finds included a few fragments of Romano British pot and tile (PRN 5155) and a few pieces of horse teeth. With such a thin scatter of finds it was not possible to arrive at any definite conclusions as to the date of the ditch.
5 Observation of service trenches recorded considerable evidence for probable later prehistoric settlement in the form of pits and ditches. In the field to the south of the farm three of these features produced Iron Age pottery, and a Neolithic flint scraper was recovered from the plough soil. trenches to the west of the barns revealed further probable later prehistoric features features and a Romano British feature which was dated by greyware pottery. The former and the current farm buildings within the farmyard are likely to have disturbed any deposits that may have been present.
6 List of relevant aerial photographs.
7 Further archaeological recording was undertaken across this site. This revealed that the site had both Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age elements, as well as Iron Age and Romano-British components. A significant Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age pit group was excavated: it yielded an important assemblage of pottery, querns, rubbing stones and charred plant remains. A scatter of Iron Age and Romano-British features were also recorded, including pits, a ditch and postholes. The enclosure ditch was sampled but remained undated except by a few later Iron Age and Romano-British pottery sherds in the upper fills. Some of the cropmark enclosures in the fields surrounding Grove fields farm are likely to have originated in the Iron Age, although, as at Wasperton, not all will have been occupied at the same time. At Grove fields farm, it may be significant that the majority of the small annular and penannular cropmark features, which almost certainly represent individual buildings and structures, lie outside the large enclosures. Some of these could also be small shrines or temples. Dotted amongst these cropmarks are large groups of pits. Some of these are conceivably storage pits that were used as silos for storing seed corn over winter.
8 A late Iron Age roundhouse and palisade were excavated, along with contemporary pits and undated features. Report contains specialist reports on flintwork, pottery, animal bones and carbonised plant remains and radiocarbon determinations.
9 Air photographs taken 15th July 2002 show a series of rectilinear enclosures in the field between farm and river. The nearest enclosure to the farm buildings is the most distinct, with an entrance (marked by slightly out-turned ditch terminals) in the centre of one of the shorter sides. Within the interior are a number of pits, some very substantial. One linear feature appears to cut across this enclosure, though it is unclear which is earliest.

Source No: 2
Source Type: Aerial Photograph
Title: SP2661 and SP2662
Author/originator: Various
Date: Various
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: SP2661AB-AC SP2662A-
Source No: 9
Source Type: Digital Data
Title: National Record for the Historic Environment (NRHE) also known as AMIE, formerly known as NMR
Author/originator: Historic England
Date: 2014-2016
Page Number:
Source No: 4
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: WMANS
Author/originator: Dyer C
Date: 1964
Page Number: 11
Volume/Sheet: 7
Source No: 8
Source Type: Excavation Report
Title: Later Prehistoric Settlement at Hampton Lucy, Warwickshire: Excavations at Grove Fields farm Cottages 2008-9
Author/originator: Palmer SC
Date: 2010
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: 1049
Source No: 7
Source Type: Evaluation Report
Title: Archaeological Recording at Grove Fields Farm Cottages, Hampton Lucy, Warwickshire
Author/originator: Palmer S
Date: 2008
Page Number:
Volume/Sheet: Report No 0869
Source No: 5
Source Type: Observation Report
Title: Archaeological recording at The Barns, Grove Fields Farm, Hampton Lucy.
Author/originator: S Palmer
Date: 2006
Page Number:
Source No: 6
Source Type: Record Card/Form
Title: Air photos of site near Grove Field Farm
Page Number:
Source No: 1
Source Type: Serial
Title: Archaeological Journal 1964
Author/originator: Webster G and Hobley B
Date: 1964
Page Number: 22
Volume/Sheet: 121
Source No: 3
Source Type: Verbal communication
Title: R.C. Hingley personal comments
Author/originator: R C Hingley
Page Number:
Enclosures and linear features visible as cropmarks, Wasperton
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 1977
Click here for larger image  
Enclosures and other features visible as cropmarks, Wasperton
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 1979
Click here for larger image  
Plan of a possible settlement showing enclosures and pits at Wasperton
Copyright: Warwickshire County Council
Date: 1995
Click here for larger image  
A possible settlement site visible as a cropmark near Wasperton
Copyright: WA Baker
Date: 1962
Click here for larger image  
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Word or Phrase
source WMANS West Midlands Archaeological News Sheet, a publication that was produced each year, this later became West Midlands Archaeology. The West Midlands Arcaheological News Sheet contains reports about archaeological work that was carried out in the West Midlands region in the previous year. It includes information about sites dating from the Prehistoric to the Post Medieval periods. It was produced the Department of Extramural Studies at Birmingham University. Copies are held at the Warwickshire Sites and Monuments Record. back
technique Cropmark Cropmarks appear as light and dark marks in growing and ripening crops. These marks relate to differences in the soil below. For example, parched lines of grass may indicate stone walls. Crops that grow over stone features often ripen more quickly and are shorter than the surrounding crop. This is because there is less moisture in the soil where the wall lies.

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technique excavation Archaeologists excavate sites so that they can find information and recover archaeological materials before they are destroyed by erosion, construction or changes in land-use.

Depending on how complicated and widespread the archaeological deposits are, excavation can be done by hand or with heavy machinery. Archaeologists may excavate a site in a number of ways; either by open area excavation, by digging a test pit or a trial trench.
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technique Radiocarbon Dating Another name for radiocarbon dating is C14 dating. It is used to find out how old some archaeological remains are. Archaeologists do this by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in samples of organic material (from the remains of plants or animals).

All organic materials contain radioactive and non-radioactive carbon in fixed amounts while they are part of living plants or animals. When the plant or animal dies the radioactive carbon starts to decay. By comparing the amount of radioactive carbon left in the organic material with the amount of stable carbon, archaeologists can find out how old it is.
technique Aerial Photograph Aerial photographs are taken during an aerial survey, which involves looking at the ground from above. It is usually easier to see cropmarks and earthworks when they are viewed from above. Aerial photographs help archaeologists to record what they see and to identify new sites. There are two kinds of aerial photographs; oblique and vertical. back
period Prehistoric About 500,000 BC to 42 AD

The Prehistoric period covers all the periods from the Palaeolithic to the end of the Iron Age.
This is a time when people did not write anything down so there is no documentary evidence for archaeologists to look at. Instead, the archaeologists look at the material culture belonging to the people and the places where they lived for clues about their way of life.

The Prehistoric period is divided into the Early Prehistoric and Later Prehistoric.
The Early Prehistoric period covers the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods.
The Later Prehistoric period covers Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age times.
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period Neolithic About 4000 BC to 2351 BC

The word ‘Neolithic’ means ‘New Stone Age’. Archaeologists split up the Neolithic period into three phases; early, middle and late. The Neolithic period comes after the Mesolithic period and before the Bronze Age.

People in the Neolithic period hunted and gathered food as their ancestors had but they were also began to farm. They kept animals and grew crops. This meant that they were able to settle more permanently in one location instead of constantly moving from place to place to look for food.
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period Bronze Age About 2500 BC to 700 BC

The Bronze Age comes after the Neolithic period and before the Iron Age.

The day to day life of people in the Bronze Age probably changed little from how their ancestors had lived during the Neolithic period. They still lived in farmsteads, growing crops and rearing animals.

During the Bronze Age people discovered how to use bronze, an alloy of tin and copper (hence the name that has given to this era). They used it to make their tools and other objects, although they continued to use flint and a range of organic materials as well. A range of bronze axes, palstaves and spears has been found in Warwickshire.
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period Iron Age About 800 BC to 43 AD

The Iron Age comes after the Bronze Age and before the Roman period. It is a time when people developed the skills and knowledge to work and use iron, hence the name ‘Iron Age’ which is given to this period. Iron is a much tougher and more durable metal than bronze but it also requires more skill to make objects from it. People continued to use bronze during this period.
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monument HOUSE * A building for human habitation, especially a dwelling place. Use more specific type where known. back
monument PALISADE * An enclosure of stakes driven into the ground, sometimes for defensive purposes. back
monument SITE * Unclassifiable site with minimal information. Specify site type wherever possible. back
monument SETTLEMENT * A small concentration of dwellings. back
monument RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE * A monument consisting of an area of land enclosed by a ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier, where the barrier consists of several straight or near straight sections. back
monument BUILDING * A structure with a roof to provide shelter from the weather for occupants or contents. Use specific type where known. back
monument SHRINE * A place where worship is offered or devotions are paid to a deity or saint. back
monument FEATURE * Areas of indeterminate function. back
monument GULLY * A deep gutter, drain or sink. back
monument FARMYARD * A yard or enclosure attached to a farmhouse, usually surrounded by other farm buildings. back
monument PIT * A hole or cavity in the ground, either natural or the result of excavation. Use more specific type where known. back
monument SILO * A building or structure for the storage of processed minerals, chemicals or agricultural products, etc. Use more specific type where known. back
monument PASTURE * A field covered with herbage for the grazing of livestock. back
monument LINEAR FEATURE * A length of straight, curved or angled earthwork or cropmark of uncertain date or function. back
monument WELL * A shaft or pit dug in the ground over a supply of spring-water. back
monument FIELD * An area of land, often enclosed, used for cultivation or the grazing of livestock. back
monument ENCLOSURE * An area of land enclosed by a boundary ditch, bank, wall, palisade or other similar barrier. Use specific type where known. back
monument TRENCH * An excavation used as a means of concealment, protection or both. back
monument DITCH * A long and narrow hollow or trench dug in the ground, often used to carry water though it may be dry for much of the year. back
monument STRUCTURE * A construction of unknown function, either extant or implied by archaeological evidence. If known, use more specific type. back
monument FARM BUILDING * A building or structure of unknown function found on a farm. Use more specific type where known. back
monument BARN * A building for the storage and processing of grain crops and for housing straw, farm equipment and occasionally livestock and their fodder. Use more specific type where known. back
monument ROUND * A small, Iron Age/Romano-British enclosed settlement found in South West England. back
monument STORAGE PIT * A pit dug in the ground used to store meat, grain and other foodstuffs. A common feature of Iron Age farms. back
monument FARM * A tract of land, often including a farmhouse and ancillary buildings, used for the purpose of cultivation and the rearing of livestock, etc. Use more specific type where known. back
monument SUBRECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE * A monument consisting of an area enclosed by a ditch, bank, wall, palisade or similar barrier, where the barrier follows an almost rectangular course. back
monument RUBBING STONE * A large stone used by cattle to rub up against and so scratch themselves. back
monument TEMPLE * Use for places of worship. For later landscape features use, eg. GARDEN TEMPLE. back
monument DOMESTIC * This is the top term for the class. See DOMESTIC Class List for narrow terms. back

* Copyright of English Heritage (1999)

English Heritage National Monuments Record